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Metabolic syndrome and overweight are highly prevalent among migraineurs and the weight-loss was suggested as a useful strategy to improve both migraine and metabolic syndrome.❿
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The Mediterranean Diet is a way of living that has been linked to a lower risk of disease and longer life. Researchers discovered in the s that people living in the Mediterranean region had reduced rates of chronic ailments like heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. People in the Mediterranean region consume a variety of complete, minimally processed, and plant-based diets, according to decades of research, which contributes to their long and healthy lives. When you begin the TLC Program, you will be required to make nutritional changes as well as increase your physical activity.
The DASH diet plan does not require any particular meals and instead sets nutritional goals for each day and week. This strategy suggests: a Including veggies, fruits, and whole grains in your diet b Dairy products that are fat-free or low-fat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and vegetable oils are all examples. Conclusion This chapter explains about the role of food in prevention of chronic diseases and also explains about the different types of food which are good for health and foods that affects the body and leads to cause of many diseases.
Thus, we can conclude that food act a medicine for body provided we ensure the intake of right food. References 1. Ahmad, A. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 3, American Academy of Pediatrics. Bright Futures. Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight. Anitha, T. Evaluation of in vitro immunomodulatory effects of soybean Glycine max L extracts on mouse immune system. Int J Pharma Sci Res, 6, Asl, M. Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp.
Phytotherapy Research, 22, Ayeka, P. The immune- modulatory activities of licorice polysaccharides Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Badgujar, H. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus carica: A review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 52, Bedrood, Z.
Toxicological effects of Camellia sinensis green tea : A review. Phytotherapy Research, 32, June Catanzaro, M. Immunomodulators inspired by nature: A review on Curcumin and Echinacea. Molecules, 23, Chaudhry, M. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.
Pak J Pharma Sci, 19, Chen, C. Choi, J. Fetal and neonatal out-comes in women reporting ingestion of licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis during pregnancy. Planta Medica, 79, Chong, P. Cinatl, J. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet, , Dietz, W. September Dietz W. Preventing obesity in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, Duke, J. Handbook of medicinal herbs 2nd ed.
Gu, J. Multiple organ infection and the pathogenesis of SARS. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, , Pathology and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. The American Journal of Pathology, , Guan, Y. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China.
Science, , Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection. Hwang, D. Pulmonary pathology of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Toronto. Modern Pathology, 18, Jeong, H. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by glycyrrhetinic acid in macrophages. FEBS Letters, , Pharmacological Research, 46, Kumar, D. A review of immunomodulators in the Indian traditional health care system. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, 45, Kuttan, G.
Immunomodulatory effect of some naturally occurring Sulphur-containing compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72, Levy, M. Policy approach to nutrition and physical activity education in health care professional training. Liu, C. Effect of supplementation with garlic oil on activity of T1 and T2 lymphocytes from rats.
Planta Medica, 75, Mahboub, M. Zingiber officinale Rosc. Phytoscience, 5, 6. Moradi, M. In vitro Anti influenza virus activity, antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of twelve Iranian medicinal plants. Marmara Pharm J, 21, Pandey, S. Anti- inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya. J Immunotoxicol, 13, Rana, S. Garlic in health and disease. Nutrition Research Reviews, 24, Sahoo, B. Medicinal plants: Source for immunosuppressive agents.
Immunology: Current Research, 2, Salehi, B. Biomolecules, 9, Piper species: A comprehensive review on their Phytochemstry, biological activities and applications.
Molecules, 24, Sangwan, P. Piperine analogs as potent Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors. Shin, H. Inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus replication and virus-induced p38 kinase activity by berberine.
International Immunopharmacology, 27, Singh, R. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Morus alba Linn: A review.
J Med Plants Res, 7, Tripathi, D. Antigiardial and immunostimulatory effect of Piper longum on giardiasis due to Giardia lamblia. Phytother Res, 13, Pneumonia of unknown cause in China. Zamani, A. Phytotherapy Research, 23, Zhang, Y. Glycyrrhizin as a promoter of the late signal transduction for interleukin-2 production by splenic lymphocytes. Immunology, 79, Zhu, N. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, The New England Journal of Medicine, , Zvetkova, E.
Aqueous extracts of Crinum latifolium L. International Immunopharmacology, 1, E-mail Id: tourismsuhas gmail. It adds a generous dose of thrill and adventure infused with the travel and tour program. With the administering of a carefully designed Survey Instrument-A Questionnaire with multiple choice questions to generate responses from travellers and tourists, this research explores the extent of the exalted expectations and satisfaction of backpackers at Tarkarli situated in the Sindhu durg district of Maharashtra well known for its white sandy beaches and adrenalin rushing aqua sports.
The white sand, clear blue sea and the suru trees add to the splendour of the beaches and of course the breath-taking and scenic backwaters of Karli river. The seabed at Tarkarli is absolutely crystal clear and can be seen up to a depth of 15 feet on any bright sunny day. This study also considered the affordability, value and quality of service offered by the service providers towards a memorable and unique experience.
The interpretation and analysis of data for arriving at outcomes and inferences [Results] clearly indicate the backpackers\’ set of expectations and perceptions to be in sync and at times more than expectations- leading to the WoW factor. The researcher has also analysed that the Backpackers have a specific behaviour pattern when travelling towards these preferred destinations.
The drivers for their motivation could be very distinct when compared to other types of travellers and tourists. Our tourism sector which has been referred to as the sunrise industry, and if not for the current pandemic situation, it would have made significant strides in accelerating the economy at global levels.
These backpackers are a segment who seek cost effective options for their travel and stay to these tourist destinations and often indulge in selecting home stays and hostel types of accommodation. The Host and Guest culture here also an ideal mix and match for community-based engagement activities for thriving for the local population.
It offers a unique blend of win-win situation and sustainable growth and development for both the stakeholders. The Conclusion endorses the 5 characteristics defining a Backpacker Pearce : 1. Preference for budget accommodation 2.
Emphasis on meeting other travellers 3. Independently organized and flexible travel schedule 4. Popularly referred to as the Queen of beaches, Tarkarli is a village located in the Malvan taluka in Sindhudurg district in Southern Maharashtra. Tarkarlihas become an all-season favourite having serene white sand beaches, tranquil backwaters, lush greenery, mesmerising nature with ample attractions like the traditional markets, architecturally marvellous temples, majestic forts in the nearby rustic villages and the cityside.
Additional features like the highly rewarding – snorkelling, friendly dolphins and the underwater sports activity of scuba diving have brought in additional charm to the visitors, backpackers and holidaymakers. Tarkarli is a perfect sojourn to freak out for a weekend and for scrambling away from the maddening rush of the bigger cities and the best part is they have interesting offers to suit every pocket and budget.
Scuba Diving is an uptick recreational activity enjoyed by most of the travellers and more so for the backpackers, as it is affordable and perhaps once in a lifetime opportunity closer home.
Hypothesis H0: The 5 elements i. H0: Tourism does not impact the local population in and around Tarkarli. H1: Tourism positively impacts the local population in and around Tarkarli. The study is based on the data collected from both primary and secondary sources.
Data Collection Primary Data was collected through telephonic interviews, virtual meetings and online surveys.
Random sampling method has been used for selecting respondents. The population was segmented into backpacking tourists and locals. Secondary Data has been collected through District Census Hand Book, Sandarbha Maharashtra, District Gazetteer, published and unpublished materials, travel books, newspapers, periodicals, etc. Different statistical methods and cartographic techniques are used wherever necessary.
Tools of Data Analysis 1 Quantitative 1. Questionnaire has been designed and distributed using Google Forms. Questions included in the survey were semi structured. The Questionnaire consisted of Likert rating scale type questions, multiple choice questions as well as few open- ended questions. Tourists, local people, tourist guide and tourism related authorities were also interviewed on phone. Observations by researcher based on the activity undertaken. Tourist feedback.
Observation of insights offered by other stakeholders Components of Research Design 1 Sampling Design Universe of the Study: The universe selected to carry out the research paper is Tarkarli and adjoining areas. Target Population: The target population for this research paper are the domestic and international backpacking tourists, locals and government agencies and other stakeholders associated with Tarkarli Sample Size: A Sample of 70 respondents was collected to put data analysis in place.
Demographics describe the composition and development of human population. The dimensions which are taken into consideration include age – groups, gender, marital status, and occupational characteristics. Age Group Figure1. Age Group Table 1. Gender Figure 2. Gender Table 2. Marital Status Figure 3. Occupation Figure4. Occupation Table 4.
Profiling Backpacking Tourists based on their visit to Tarkarli For tourism to thrive, profiling a tourist is very essential. This section considers dimensions like purpose of visit, frequency of visit and travel companion of the tourist to further understand the tourist profile. Purpose of Visit Figure 5. Purpose of Visit For the purpose of the study, tourism is examined from different tourist products, supply and the labour market.
The development of tourist demand is above all factors relevant to the tourism industry, destinations and marketers.
The study considers 5 core dimensions to understand the purpose of visit Nature, Adventure, Relaxation, Business and Education. Table 5. Frequency of Visit Figure 6. Frequency of Visit Frequency of tourists helps to understand a number of tourists visited to Tarkarli.
It shows the popularity of this destination. It has been divided into 7 major categories as stated in the pie diagram above. Table 6. Travel Companion Figure 7. Travel Companion While visiting Tarkarli accompanying members helps to study the nature of tourist complimentarily. The study considers 5 dimensions-friends, family, business, solo and other.
Table 7. Analysing the Tourist Opinion Survey Every tourist carries forth experiences from their visit based on different factors. This study looks at the 5 As of Tourism to understand what and how these factors impact tourist opinion and experience. The questions in this opinion survey are on a 4 point Likert scale from Excellent to Unsatisfactory.
Both quantitative and qualitative data have been considered here. Accessibility Accessibility plays main role in the development of tourism industry.
Various modes of transportation are essential for reaching the tourist at destinations desired. The study looks at preferred mode of transportation as well as the tourist experience during the journey to and from Tarkarli. Figure 8. Mode of transport preferred by tourists Figure 8. Mode of transport preferred by tourists Table 8. Tourist Experience in the journey to and from Tarkarli Figure 8. Tourist Experience in the journey to and from Tarkarli Table 8.
Accommodation Accommodation is a necessary component in the development of tourism industry within any destination. It plays an important role in the overall economic contribution which tourism makes at a local and national level. An accommodation facility attracts large number of tourist at the Destinations. A deputation of Huguenot pastors and elders, who waited upon the Duc de Noailles in informed him that there were then 1,, Protestant families in France.
Thirty years after that date, Louis XIV. After an interval of about seventy-five years, during which Protestantism though suppressed by the law contrived to lead a sort of underground life—the Protestants meeting by night, and sometimes by day, in caves, valleys, moors, woods, old quarries, hollow beds of rivers, or, as they themselves called it, \”in the Desert\”—they at length contrived to lift their heads into the light of day, and then Rabaut St.
Etienne stood up in the Constituent Assembly at Paris, in , and claimed the rights of his Protestant fellow-countrymen—the rights of \”2,, useful citizens. After all the sufferings of France—after the cruelties to which her people have been subjected by p.
France was brought to ruin a century ago by the Jesuits who held the entire education of the country in their hands.
They have again recovered their ground, and the Congreganistes are now what the Jesuits were before. The Sans-Culottes of were the pupils of the priests; so were the Communists of Edgar Quinet has recently said to his countrymen: \”The Jesuitical and clerical spirit which has sneaked in among you and all your affairs has ruined you.
It has corrupted the spring of life; it has delivered you over to the enemy Is this to last for ever? For heaven\’s sake spare us at least the sight of a Jesuits\’ Republic as the coronation of our century.
In the midst of these prophecies of ruin, we have M. Veuillot frankly avowing his Ultramontane policy in the Univers. He is quite willing to go back to the old burnings, hangings, and quarterings, to prevent any freedom of opinion about religious matters. And I regret further that there has not been some prince sufficiently pious and politic to have made a crusade against the Protestants. Veuillot is perhaps entitled to some respect for boldly speaking out what he means and thinks.
Veuillot does, and would like to see the principles of free examination and individual liberty torn up root and branch. With respect to the proposed crusade against Protestantism, it will be seen from the following work what the \”pious and politic\” Louis XIV. Louis XIV. The history of the Huguenots during the time of their submergence as an \”underground church\” is scarcely treated in the general histories of France.
Courtly writers blot them out of history as Louis XIV. Most histories of France published in England contain little notice of them. Those who desire to pursue the subject further, will obtain abundant information, more particularly from the following works:—.
Antoine Court : Histoire des Troubles de Cevennes. Adolphe Michel : Louvois et Les Protestantes. London , October , Although the Revocation was the personal act of the King, it was nevertheless a popular measure, approved by the Catholic Church of France, and by the great body of the French people. The King had solemnly sworn, at the beginning of his reign, to maintain, the tolerating Edict of Henry IV.
The aged Chancellor, Le Tellier, was so overjoyed at the measure, that on affixing the great seal of France to the deed, he exclaimed, in the words of Simeon, \”Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen the salvation.
Let our acclamations ascend to heaven, and let us say to this new Constantine, this new Theodosius, this new Marcian, this new Charlemagne, what the thirty-six fathers formerly said in the Council of Chalcedon: \’You have affirmed the faith, you have exterminated the heretics; it is a work worthy of your reign, whose proper character it is.
Thanks to you, heresy is no more. God alone can have worked this marvel. King of heaven, preserve the King of earth: it is the prayer of the Church, it is the prayer of the Bishops. Madame de Maintenon also received the praises of the Church. Cyr an institution founded by her , that \”the cardinals and the bishops knew no other way of approaching the King save through her.
But Louis XIV. People at court all spoke with immense praises of the King\’s intentions with respect to destroying the Huguenots.
Madame de Maintenon wrote to the Duc de Noailles, \”The soldiers are killing numbers of the fanatics—they hope soon to free Languedoc of them. She seems to have classed them with criminals or wild beasts.
When residing in Low Brittany during a revolt against the Gabelle, a friend wrote to her, \”How dull you must be! They have just taken twenty-four or thirty of these men, and are going to throw them off. A few days after the Edict had been revoked, she wrote to her cousin Bussy, at Paris: \”You have doubtless seen the Edict by which the King revokes that of Nantes.
There is nothing so fine as that which it contains, and never has any King done, or ever will do, a more memorable act. The wars which have been waged against them, and the St. Bartholomew, have given some reputation to the sect.
De Baville, however, the Lieutenant of Languedoc, kept her in good heart. In one of his letters, he said, \”I have this morning condemned seventy-six of these wretches Huguenots , and sent them to the galleys. Madame de Scuderi, also, more moderately rejoiced in the Act of Revocation. Even the French Academy, though originally founded by a Huguenot, publicly approved the deed of Revocation.
The Revocation was popular with the lower class, who went about sacking and pulling down the Protestant churches. They also tracked the Huguenots and their pastors, where they found them evading or breaking the Edict of Revocation; thus earning the praises of the Church and the fines offered by the King for their apprehension.
The provosts and sheriffs of Paris represented the popular feeling, by erecting a brazen statue of the King who had rooted out heresy; and they struck and distributed medals in honour of the great event. The Revocation was also popular with the dragoons.
In order to \”convert\” the Protestants, the dragoons were unduly billeted upon them. As both officers and soldiers were then very badly paid, they were thereby enabled to live at free quarters. They treated everything in the houses they occupied as if it were their own, and an assignment of billets was little loss than the consignment of the premises to the military, to use for their own purposes, during the time they occupied them.
The Revocation was also approved by those who wished to buy land cheap. As the Huguenots were prevented holding their estates unless they conformed to the Catholic religion, and as many estates were p. Even before the Revocation, when the Huguenots were selling their land in order to leave the country, Madame de Maintenon wrote to her nephew, for whom she had obtained from the King a grant of , francs, \”I beg of you carefully to use the money you are about to receive.
Estates in Poitou may be got for nothing; the desolation of the Huguenots will drive them to sell more. You may easily acquire extensive possessions in Poitou. The Revocation was especially gratifying to the French Catholic Church.
The Pope, of course, approved of it. Te Deums were sung at Rome in thanksgiving for the forced conversion of the Huguenots. Pope Innocent XI. The Jesuits were especially elated by the Revocation. It enabled them to fill their schools and nunneries with the children of Protestants, who were compelled by law to pay for their education by Jesuit priests. To furnish the required accommodation, nearly the whole of the Protestant temples that had not been pulled down were p.
Even Bossuet, the \”last father of the Church,\” shared in the spoils of the Huguenots. A few days after the Edict had been revoked, Bossuet applied for the materials of the temples of Nauteuil and Morcerf, situated in his diocese; and his Majesty ordered that they should be granted to him. Now that Protestantism had been put down, and the officers of Louis announced from all parts of the kingdom that the Huguenots were becoming converted by thousands, there was nothing but a clear course before the Jesuits in France.
For their religion was now the favoured religion of the State. It is true there were the Jansenists—declared to be heretical by the Popes, and distinguished for their opposition to the doctrines and moral teaching of the Jesuits—who were suffering from a persecution which then drove some of the members of Port Royal into exile, and eventually destroyed them.
But even the Jansenists approved the persecution of the Protestants. The great Arnault, their most illustrious interpreter, though in exile in the Low Countries, declared that though the means which Louis XIV. But Protestantism being declared destroyed, and Jansenism being in disgrace, there was virtually no legal religion in France but one—that of the Roman Catholic Church.
Atheism, it is true, was tolerated, but then Atheism was not a religion. The Atheists did not, like the Protestants, set up rival churches, or appoint rival ministers, and seek to draw people to their assemblies. The Atheists, though they tacitly approved the religion of the King, had no opposition p. Hence it followed that the Court and the clergy had far more toleration for Atheism than for either Protestantism or Jansenism.
It is authentically related that Louis XIV. At the time of the Revocation, when the King and the Catholic Church were resolved to tolerate no religion other than itself, the Church had never seemed so powerful in France. It had a strong hold upon the minds of the people. Yet the uncontrolled and enormously increased power conferred upon the French Church at that time, most probably proved its greatest calamity. Less than a hundred years after the Revocation, the Church had lost its influence over the people, and was despised.
Not one of the clergy we have named, powerful orators though they were, ever ventured to call in question the cruelties with which the King sought to compel the Protestants to embrace the dogmas of their Church. There were no doubt many Catholics who deplored the force practised on the p. Some of them considered it an impious sacrilege to compel the Protestants to take the Catholic sacrament—to force them to accept the host, which Catholics believed to be the veritable body of Christ, but which the Huguenots could only accept as bread, over which some function had been performed by the priests, in whose miraculous power of conversion they did not believe.
The Duc de Saint-Simon, also a Jansenist, took the same view, which he embodied in his \”Memoirs;\” but these were kept secret by his family, and were not published for nearly a century after his death. Thus the Catholic Church remained triumphant. The Revocation was apparently approved by all, excepting the Huguenots. The King was flattered by the perpetual conversions reported to be going on throughout the country—five thousand persons in one place, ten thousand in another, who had abjured and taken the communion—at once, and sometimes \”instantly.
He believed himself to have renewed the days of the preaching of the Apostles, and attributed to himself all the honour. The Bishops wrote panegyrics of him; the Jesuits made the pulpits resound with his praises He swallowed their poison in deep draughts. He had therefore the fullest opportunity of observing the results of the policy he had pursued.
He died in the hands of the Jesuits, his body covered with relics of the true cross. Madame de Maintenon, the \”famous and fatal witch,\” as Saint-Simon called her, abandoned him at last; and the King died, lamented by no one. He had banished, or destroyed, during-his reign, about a million of his subjects, and those who remained did not respect him. Many regarded him as a self-conceited tyrant, who sought to save his own soul by inflicting penance on the backs of others.
He loaded his kingdom with debt, and overwhelmed his people with taxes. He destroyed the industry of France, which had been mainly supported by the Huguenots.
Towards the end of his life he became generally hated; and while his heart was conveyed to the Grand Jesuits, his body, which was buried at St. Denis, was hurried to the grave accompanied by the execrations of the people. Yet the Church remained faithful to him to the last. The great Massillon preached his funeral sermon; though the message was draped in the livery of the Court.
Specious reasons of State! In vain did you oppose to Louis the timid views of human wisdom, the body of the monarchy enfeebled by the flight of so many citizens, the course of trade slackened, either by the deprivation of their industry, or by the furtive removal of their wealth!
Dangers fortify his zeal. The work of God fears not man. He believes even p. The profane temples are destroyed, the pulpits of seduction are cast down.
The prophets of falsehood are torn from their flocks. At the first blow dealt to it by Louis, heresy falls, disappears, and is reduced either to hide itself in the obscurity whence it issued, or to cross the seas, and to bear with it into foreign lands its false gods, its bitterness, and its rage.
Whatever may have been the temper which the Huguenots displayed when they were driven from France by persecution, they certainly carried with them something far more valuable than rage. They carried with them their virtue, piety, industry, and valour, which proved the source of wealth, spirit, freedom, and character, in all those countries—Holland, Prussia, England, and America—in which these noble exiles took refuge. We shall next see whether the Huguenots had any occasion for entertaining the \”rage\” which the great Massillon attributed to them.
The Revocation struck with civil death the entire Protestant population of France. All the liberty of conscience which they had enjoyed under the Edict of Nantes, was swept away by the act of the King. They were deprived of every right and privilege; their social life was destroyed; their callings were proscribed; their property was liable to be confiscated at any moment; and they were subjected to mean, detestable, and outrageous cruelties.
The only resource which remained to the latter was that of flying from their native country; and an immense number of persons took the opportunity of escaping from France. The Edict of Revocation proclaimed that the Huguenot subjects of France must thenceforward be of \”the King\’s religion;\” and the order was promulgated throughout the kingdom. The Prime Minister, Louvois, wrote to the provincial governors, \”His Majesty desires that the severest rigour shall be shown to those who will not conform to His Religion, and those who seek the foolish glory of wishing to be the last, must be pushed to the utmost extremity.
They were also forbidden, under the penalty of being sent to the galleys for life, to worship privately in their own homes. If they were overheard singing their favourite psalms, they were liable to fine, imprisonment, or the galleys. They were compelled to hang out flags from their houses on the days of Catholic processions; but they were forbidden, under a heavy penalty, to look out of their windows when the Corpus Domini was borne along the streets.
The Huguenots were rigidly forbidden to instruct their children in their own faith. They were commanded to send them to the priest to be baptized and brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, under the penalty of five hundred livres fine in each case.
The boys were educated in Jesuit schools, the girls in nunneries, the parents being compelled to pay the required expenses; and where the parents were too poor to pay, the children were at once transferred to the general hospitals. A decree of the King, published in December, , ordered that every child of five years and upwards was to be taken possession of by the authorities, and removed from its Protestant parents.
This decree often proved a sentence of death, not only to the child, but to its parents. The whole of the Protestant temples throughout France were subject to demolition. The expelled pastors were compelled to evacuate the country within fifteen days. If, in the meantime, they were found performing their functions, they were liable to be sent to the galleys for life.
If they undertook to marry Protestants, the marriages were declared illegal, and the children bastards. If, after the expiry of the p. Protestants could neither be born, nor live, nor die, without state and priestly interference. Protestant sages-femmes were not permitted to exercise their functions; Protestant doctors were prohibited from practising; Protestant surgeons and apothecaries were suppressed; Protestant advocates, notaries, and lawyers were interdicted; Protestants could not teach, and all their schools, public and private, were put down.
Protestants were no longer employed by the Government in affairs of finance, as collectors of taxes, or even as labourers on the public roads, or in any other office. Even Protestant grocers were forbidden to exercise their calling. There must be no Protestant librarians, booksellers, or printers. There was, indeed, a general raid upon Protestant literature all over France. All Bibles, Testaments, and books of religious instruction, were collected and publicly burnt.
There were bonfires in almost every town. At Metz, it occupied a whole day to burn the Protestant books which had been seized, handed over to the clergy, and condemned to be destroyed. Protestants were even forbidden to hire out horses, and Protestant grooms were forbidden to give riding lessons. Protestant domestics were forbidden to hire themselves as servants, and Protestant mistresses were forbidden to hire them under heavy penalties.
If they engaged Protestant servants, they were liable to be sent to the galleys for life. They were even prevented employing \”new converts. Artisans were forbidden to work without certificates that their religion was Catholic. Protestant apprenticeships p. Protestant washerwomen were excluded from their washing-places on the river. In fact, there was scarcely a degradation that could be invented, or an insult that could be perpetrated, that was not practised upon those poor Huguenots who refused to be of \”the King\’s religion.
Even when Protestants were about to take refuge in death, their troubles were not over. The priests had the power of forcing their way into the dying man\’s house, where they presented themselves at his bedside, and offered him conversion and the viaticum. If the dying man refused these, he was liable to be seized after death, dragged from the house, pulled along the streets naked, and buried in a ditch, or thrown upon a dunghill.
Cephalalgia, submitted. Diagnosis of primary headache in children younger than 6 years: A clinical challenge. Cephalalgia ; Chronic Migraine in Children and Adolescents.
Headache and comorbidities in childhood and adolescence. Springer, Whether medication-overuse headache MOH represents a distinct biological entity within the concept of chronic daily headache with specific neurobiological and genetic background is still a matter of debate. A great deal of interest has been directed at understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie MOH pathogenesis. Currently, two main, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed.
The first, stems from the apparent compulsive use of headache medications by MOH patients, and considers this disorder a sort of addiction to symptomatic remedies. The second shifts the focus from drug addiction to neural sensitization, claiming that triptan overuse triggers adaptations of the trigeminovascular system, thereby facilitating pain transmission and leading to a state of latent sensitization.
Answering these questions might be relevant to better understand the neurochemical mechanisms prompted by acute headache medications that underlie the pathophysiology of MOH and of chronic headache in general. In this presentation, preclinical data will be presented showing that chronic exposure to eletriptan or indomethacin alter trigeminal ganglion gene expression patterns broadly and to a similar extend. Remarkably, qualitative transcriptomic analysis reveals that prolonged exposure to the two different symptomatic drugs triggers almost identical, increased expression of various genes coding for proteins involved in headache pathogenesis such as neuropeptides, their cognate receptors, TRP channels, prostanoid and NO synthesizing enzymes.
These findings will be correlated with the clinical aspects of MOH. The dramatic caloric restriction promotes the fat metabolism, mimicking the starvation, even if meals replacements ad hoc developed accounts for essential nutrients, avoiding the malnutrition.
Because of the extreme caloric restriction, this type of diet is very effective in weight loss, however, that characteristic also is the main limit of VLCD, since it is possible to follow this kind of dietetic regimen for a very limited period usually weeks.
Salads are allowed ad libitum dressed with a spoonful of olive oil. Also in this kind of diet, there are meals per day, mainly consisting in meal replacement products. There is a growing interest in the ketogenic form of the VLCD because several studies have shown a higher compliance of patients with this diet. The reason of this higher adherence to the diet is still under scrutiny but several reasons are called in cause: an appetite suppression induced by proteins and maybe by ketone bodies KBs , or a modification in hormone secretion insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, adipokines.
The real impact of ketogenic diets in weight loss is still disputed; in fact, on the long period there are not differences between low-carb and low-fat diets in terms of weight reduction and regain of lost weight after the diet. However, thanks to the higher compliance and the drastic caloric restriction, the VLCKDs seem to be a promising approach in the early management of obesity and in the preparation phase for patients that must undergo to bariatric or other types of surgical procedures.
Temporomandibular disorders TMD represent the main cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin and comprehend several disturbances of the masticatory system characterized by myofascial pain of masticatory muscles or articular pain localized in the pre-auricular area.
Moreover, TMD patients show temporomandibular joint sounds and deviation or limitation of the opening of the mouth. Myofascial pain is a probable consequence of central nervous system mechanisms of convergence and activation of second order neurons with enlargement of the receptive field, reduced pain threshold and allodinia.
Often there are accompanying symptoms like facial pain and headaches. Headache is the most prevalent neurologic disorder, third most diffused health disturbance and the seventh cause of disability in the world. It can be primary, without apparent organic cause, or secondary to other pathologies. Some epidemiological studies indicates that headache is more prevalent in TMD patients and TMD is more prevalent in subjects affected by headache. A stronger association exists between TMD and chronic migraine in comparison with other types of headache.
Nevertheless the methodological quality of the available studies is not optimal and many of them classify patients with anamnestic questionnaire that tend to overestimate the values of prevalence. A growing body of literature suggests that the association between headache and TMD may be a manifestation of a central sensitization mechanism.
Temporomandibular joint and muscles receive the sensitive innervation of the trigeminal nerve that supply also the cranial vascular structures likely involved in the etiology of the headache. The sensitization of the trigeminal caudate nucleus by the TMD symptoms can favor the triggering of migraine episode. Beside the epidemiological studies and the neurophysiologic hypothesis, there are some initial clinical evidence that show how severity of TMD symptoms parallels an increase of frequency and intensity of migraine and the simultaneous treatment of both conditions results in better outcomes.
From a clinical perspective, a comprehensive assessment based on a biopsychosocial approach can provide relevant information to plan a contemporaneous treatment of TMD and headache, together with an intervention targeted to the reduction of psychosocial conditions that can elicit and maintain mechanisms of central sensitization likely responsible of the comorbidity of TMD and headache.
The exact pathophysiology is still unknown, but evidence supporting both peripheral and central mechanisms i. In fact, the frequency of headache attacks has found to be related to the level of central sensitization . However, not all TTH patients present with the same level of central sensitization and clinical presentation, but subgroups need to be identified in order to offer specific therapeutic programs . Prolonged peripheral nociceptive input from the pericranial, neck, and shoulder regions e.
In fact, it has been found that sustained stimulation of TrPs may induce central sensitization in healthy participants . The number of TrPs seems to be associated with the degree of widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity in TTH patients, supporting the role of TrPs on central sensitization: however the cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow to establish a cause and effect relationship between TrPs and central sensitization, as other variables may influence this association .
Physical therapy may be helpful for the management of TTH patients [10,11], as it may decrese the peripheral nociceptive input. The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia ;— Tension type headache. Curr Rheumatol Rev ; — Pressure pain thresholds assessed over temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy individuals, patients with tension- type headache, and those with migraine: A systematic review.
Pain ; — Frequency of headache is related to sensitization: a population study. Pain ; Identification of subgroups of patients with tension type headache with higher widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. J Headache Pain ; 18 1 The role of muscles in tension-type headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. Sustained nociceptive mechanical stimulation of latent myofascial trigger point induces central sensitization in healthy subjects.
J Pain. Myofascial trigger points and sensitization: An updated pain model for tension-type headache. Trigger Points are associated with widespread pressure pain sensitivity in people with tension-type headache. Cephalalgia [Epub ahead of print].
Muscle trigger point therapy in tension-type headache. Expert Rev Neurother ; 12 3 Effectiveneess of physical therapy in patients with tension-type headache: literature review. J Jpn Phys Ther Assoc ; 17 1 Migraine is related to the highest disability among headaches. Great efforts are faced to improve the outcome of forthcoming treatments. However, still now, many patients regard as unsatisfactory the low responder rate about the half of patients and adverse effects that current treatments account.
Therefore, waiting for innovative, more tolerated and effective treatments, there is a large request for non-pharmacological approaches that in many cases have specific pathophysiological targets. Among these treatments, nutraceuticals has a leading role.
Several nutraceutical products are proposed for migraine and sold around the world, but researchers adequately study only few compounds. Among studied nutraceuticals compounds, only few of them have studies of good quality in support. Moreover, also interactions among different molecules are not studied. We have reviewed literature data in order to find researches that support the use of nutraceutical molecules in migraine management.
Available good quality data support the use of certain nutraceuticals, in particular riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, magnesium, butterbur, feverfew, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Even if not supported by double blind studies, recently some prospective observational studies about fixed combination of nutraceuticals were performed. For instance, it is the case of a combination of coenzyme Q10, feverfew and magnesium for migraine prophylaxis: a prospective observational study.
A double blind versus placebo study about the effect of a fixed combination of riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, feverfew, andrographis and magnesium for migraine prophylaxis is currently in progress. Usually patients appreciate nutraceuticals more than traditional drugs, since they are regarded as safe and of efficacy not inferior to other pharmacological products. Available data seem to support this widespread belief, but some concerns about the regulation of nutraceuticals and quality of some products, still remain.
Contrary to what is generally thought of, headaches and algology pain therapy share many aspects. Headaches and chronic non-oncological pain are two paradigms of chronic illness capable of generating enormous individual and social impact by disabling the sick person not only in the biological, but also in the psychological, professional, social and relational spheres.
Both cause alterations in psychological equilibrium, secondary depression, loss of social and professional roles, which, in the most serious cases, can cause loss of work.
Literature documents in both cases, headaches and chronic pain, a rise in direct costs but above all of the indirect ones with a huge burden of disease. Both are capable of generating a marked drop in the quality of life associated with a serious bio-psycho-social disability. Headaches and chronic pain, although distinct according to a topographical criterion, share many mechanisms and physiopathogenetic steps.
One of the most current fields in which neurologists and pain therapists converge is the focus on neuroinflammation  and central sensitization, two key mechanism for triggering, maintaining, and subsequent perpetuation of pain: the pain as a symptom, filogenetically responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the organism against actual or potential damage, becomes unnecessary illness without any protective meaning. Another important shared pathogenetic passage is that of neuroimmune mechanisms, which interlink the immune system with the central nervous system.
Furthermore, numerous contribution to the scientific international literature highlight the need to modify the therapeutic approach, directing it towards a semeiotic criterion pain phenothype: specific sign and symptoms of a certain type of pain in a specific moment , which is an epiphenomenon of underlyng pathogenetic mechanism, instead of basing it on a etiologic criterion.
This would enable a more appropriate prescription and greater efficiency, taking into primary consideration the possibility of getting back to everyday life rather than obtaining complete analgesia. All the above mentioned aspects are equally important but one of them can prevail over the others depending on patient characteristics and background.
In conclusion it can be stated that the aspects of sharing between headaches and chronic non-oncological pain are significantly greater than those that clearly divide them. World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health ICF.
Geneva, World Health Organization, Steiner T. J Lifting the burden: The global campaign against headache. Ru-Rong Ji Emerging targets in neuroinflammation-driven chronic pain. Nat Rev Drug Discov. Baron R Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. Headache is a common clinical feature in neurological patients. Usually, neuroimaging is unnecessary in patients with episodic migraine or tension type headache with typical headache features and with a normal neurological examination.
These patients do not have a higher probability of a relevant brain pathology compared to the general population.
A recent study, however, reported that neuroimaging is routinely ordered in outpatient headache even if guidelines specifically recommend against their use.
Brain MRI with detailed study of the pituitary area and cavernous sinus, is recommended for all trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias TACs. Neuroimaging should be considered in patients presenting with atypical headache features, a new onset headache, change in previously headache pattern, headache abruptly reaching the peak level, headache changing with posture, headache awakening the patient, or precipitated by physical activity or Valsalva manoeuvre and abnormal neurological examination.
A recent consensus recommends brain MRI for the case of migraine with aura that persists on one side or in brainstem aura.
According the same consensus, fFor primary cough headache, exercise headache, headache associated with sexual activity, thunderclap headache and hypnic headache apart from brain MRI additional tests may be required . Particularly in emergency room it is mandatory to exclude a secondary headache that requires special attention and further diagnostic workup.
CT scan is the first line neuroimaging examination. MRI offers a greater resolution and discrimination and might therefore be the preferred method of choice in non acute headache. In addition, radiation due to CT scanning may be avoided. Neuroimaging non conventional techniques are of little or no value in the clinical setting. Headache neuroimaging: Routine testing when guidelines recommend against them. European Headache Federation consensus on technical investigation for primary headachedisorders.
Migraine frequency fluctuates over time. In the literature, the most important recognized factors associated to chronic migraine are overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression, presence of allodynia and stressful life events. Other factors reported in studies are age, female sex and low educational status. Very recently, a large population study suggested that the presence of additional noncephalic pain site is a risk factor for migraine chronification.
For many of these factors the relationship with migraine chronification may however be bi-directional. For instance, in the case of depression, it is possible that depression may negatively affect the response of migraine to acute and prophylactic treatments, but it is also true the opposite: i.
In the case of obesity, the association with chronic migraine may simply be ascribed to the effect of fat tissue in drug distribution. Beside and beyond the putative biological factors that may cause a worsening of disease, several lines of evidence suggest that the progression from episodic to chronic migraine is associated to a progressive increase and stabilization of functional and anatomical changes associated to chronic sensitization.
In this frame, it appears obvious that an additional cause for chronic migraine is quite likely represented by the low rate of prescription of preventive medications. The underutilization of preventive drugs has several explanations ranging from drug-associated issues limited efficacy, poor tolerability profile to education of practitioners, pharmacists and patients, and it also involve the limited access to qualified care.
Underutilization of preventative drugs also translate into a higher recourse to acute drugs, thus feeding on a vicious cycle that leads to negative consequences. CT has participated in advisory boards for Allergan and electroCore; she has lectured at symposia sponsored by Allergan; she is PI or collaborator in clinical trials sponsored by Alder, electroCore, Eli-Lilly and Teva.
Prevalence of migraine sufferers who are candidates for preventive therapy: results from the American migraine study AMPP study. Headache ; — The added value of an electronic monitoring and alerting system in the management of medication-overuse headache: A controlled multicentre study. To date, the majority of clinical studies concerning primary headaches and their comorbidities are focused on migraine.
Comorbidities of migraine may include neurological and psychiatric conditions, as mood disorders depression, mania, anxiety, panic attacks , epilepsy, essential tremor, stroke, and the presence of white matter abnormalities . Particularly, a complex and bidirectional relation between migraine and stroke has been described, including migraine as a risk factor for cerebral ischemia, migraine caused by cerebral ischemia, migraine mimicking cerebral ischemia, migraine and cerebral ischemia sharing a common cause, and migraine associated with subclinical vascular brain lesions .
A recent meta-analysis pointed out that migraine is associated with increased ischemic stroke risk , and according to a systematic review and meta-analysis  the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in migraineurs is increased with respect to non-migraineurs. Besides, the risk of transient ischemic attack seems to be increased in migraineurs, although this issue has not been extensively investigated .
A recent systematic review and meta-analysis also describes an increased risk of myocardial infarction and angina in migraineurs compared to non-migraineurs . Concerning the association between migraine and vascular risk factors arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, alcohol consumption, family history of cardiovascular disease , a recent review  showed no solid evidence of an increased burden of conventional vascular risk factors in migraineurs, with the only exceptions of dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking, while a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding migraine and body mass index categories  found an increased risk of having migraine in underweight subjects and in obese women as compared with normal-weight subjects.
Few studies investigated the comorbidities of tension-type headache TTH , despite the fact that tension-type headache TTH is highly prevalent, and may be as debilitating as migraine . It is noteworthy that, according to a review, TTH is associated with increased rate of affective distress . Furthermore, some medical disorders may worsen a preexisting TTH, and it has been described the comorbidity of TTH with psychiatric disorders and fibromyalgia .
The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3 rd edition beta version. Comorbid neuropathologies in migraine. Migraine headache and ischemic stroke risk: an updated meta-analysis. Am J Med. Migraine and hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis. Sacco S, Kurth T. Migraine and the risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep.
Migraine and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Conventional vascular risk factors: Their role in the association between migraine and cardiovascular diseases. The Doctor draws Teeth without pulling off your Mask. James\’s Coffee-house, either by miscalling the Servants, or requiring such things from them as are not properly within their respective Provinces; this is to give Notice, that Kidney, Keeper of the Book-Debts of the outlying Customers, and Observer of those who go off without paying, having resigned that Employment, is succeeded by John Sowton; to whose Place of Enterer of Messages and first Coffee-Grinder, William Bird is promoted; and Samuel Burdock comes as Shooe-Cleaner in the Room of the said Bird.
They are not only instructed to pronounce Words distinctly, and in a proper Tone and Accent, but to speak the Language with great Purity and Volubility of Tongue, together with all the fashionable Phrases and Compliments now in use either at Tea-Tables or visiting Days. Those that have good Voices may be taught to sing the newest Opera-Airs, and, if requir\’d, to speak either Italian or French, paying something extraordinary above the common Rates.
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As she has often observ\’d with much Concern how indecent an Education is usually given these innocent Creatures, which in some Measure is owing to their being plac\’d in Rooms next the Street, where, to the great Offence of chaste and tender Ears, they learn Ribaldry, obscene Songs, and immodest Expressions from Passengers and idle People, and also to cry Fish and Card-matches, with other useless Parts of Learning to Birds who have rich Friends, she has fitted up proper and neat Apartments for them in the back Part of her said House; where she suffers none to approach them but her self, and a Servant Maid who is deaf and dumb, and whom she provided on purpose to prepare their Food and cleanse their Cages; having found by long Experience how hard a thing it is for those to keep Silence who have the Use of Speech, and the Dangers her Scholars are expos\’d to by the strong Impressions that are made by harsh Sounds and vulgar Dialects.
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Several health professional organisations advocate for obesity prevention or encourage their members to do so. Simply said, obesity, chronic diseases, and medicine spending have grown as the percentage of income spent on food has declined. Two battalions, drawn нажмите чтобы перейти in two lines facing each other, formed an avenue of bayonets between the citadel, near at hand, and the place of execution. Madame de Maintenon wrote to the Duc de Noailles, \”The soldiers are killing numbers of the fanatics—they hope soon to free Languedoc of them. Pressure pain thresholds assessed over temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy individuals, patients with tension- type headache, and those with migraine: A systematic review. It is to give an account of these people, as a supplement to my former book, that the present work is written. Gender Table 2.