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It became the responsibility of the London County Council on 1 April \” London Metropolitan Archives Catalogue , which is confirmed by the following: 89 year old patient\’s death certificate shows him as dying from \”chronic brain wastage\” in \”the London County Asylum, Banstead\”.

Mott at Claybury] , there will still remain much useful work of this nature to be done in the several Asylums, for which due provision should be made\”. Smith as director. Smith, a philosophy graduate of Edinburgh University, studied for his PhD under the pioneer of experimental psychology, Wilhelm Wundt. He worked for several years in the United States, including a period with William James.

Smith and Mott were founder members of the Psychological Society in the same year that the Experimental Psychology unit was established at Claybury. In , Smith became the first lecturer in psychology at Liverpool University and in , he became the first Combe lecturer in General and Experimental Psychology at Edinburgh University.

More people needing psychiatric treatment are becoming willing to accept early hospital admission where it is necessary \”\”The number of beds is being decreased to allow better bed spacing, but the number of patients being treated is not decreasing; the group secretary, Mr Wilfred Mitchinson, informs me\” The causes of mental illness are complicated and there is still much that is not understood.

In some cases environment and the increased pace of the 20th century life plays a part. Between and the annual number of admissions to psychiatric hospitals more than doubled from 55, to , Although the total number of patients was rising until – the year which saw the introduction of tranquillisers the number of in-patients declined since then, from: , to Claybury\’s admission rate\’ tended to follow the national trend.

Admissions nearly doubled between and , from to 1, The overall number of in-patients between and declined from 2, to 2, New methods of management of patients, new rehabilitation, schemes and changed staff attitudes were equally important. Last year there were 1. There has been a \”great increase\” in short-stay admissions since Many more patients are now well enough to stay outside hospital with support, which may include occasional short readmissions.

Once rehabilitation became available Claybury experienced a dramatic drop in long-stay patients. Claybury has a universal reputation for its therapeutic community methods of treatment and practice and receives visits from people from all over the world interested in how the work has been developed.

Rising\’ prices The hospital has a staff of 2,, including 19 doctors and nurses, of whom are full time. In addition to their duties at Claybury the doctors do out-patient work in general hospitals. Cost of running Claybury is increasing year by year due mainly to rising prices and increases in salary scales. Other factors are the higher standards being provided for patients and the increased number of short- term admissions.

Problems are being experienced at the hospital due to staff shortages. Most student nurses require residential accommodation and there is insufficient available for them within the hospital.

Another problem is public transport. It is considered that the bus services covering the hospital could be improved and made more reliable, making it easier for staff to arrive on time for duty. In , the first Labour controlled local council was elected – West Ham. London County Council bought all the land belonging to the Manor of Horton in Epsom, Surrey, to develop a complex of asylums which was to become the largest in Europe.

Simon Cornwall\’s tour of all The online Horton Country Park map with history shows the area on the east of this map. This is suggested by the houses along Hook Road going north from the railway bridge. Dates and architectural features suggest that many of these were built as homes for the staff. Near the bridge there are several with the date , when the Manor was being built. Then there are ones dated , when Horton was opened. These are followed by ones dated , when Ewell Epileptic Colony was opened.

Common facilities David Cochrane p. Sewage disposal was centralised. Similarly, the cemetery and the rail link to Ewell were for all the asylums. Sports centre built round boiler-house. This is in the back streets in the crook of Hook Road and Long Grove Road – south of the cricket ground.

The Manor which was a certified institution, not an asylum had its own branch.. This land or part of it was farms for West Park and Long Grove. These became \”surplus to requirements\” and were bought by Epsom and Ewell Council to create the park. Building may have begun in The asylum was opened in It consisted of the existing Manor House restored for staff, and corrugated iron buildings for patients.

The scheme was disapproved by the Lunacy Commission, but approved by the Home Secretary. It was opened for female patients of the \”comparatively quiet and harmless class\”. Cochrane, D. Galey who lived at 4 Percy Cottages, Elm Road, Claygate about three mile away in a straight line – perhaps he cycled. The other four hospitals seemed to have been one branch Epsom. Medical superintendent: Edward Salterono Litteljohn.

Assistant medical officer: Bridget Coffey. Chaplain: Rev Edward John Hockly. Clerk: C. House Steward: W. Plans to rebuild by By expected have mental subnormality patients, and there to be another in St Ebbas converted and in \”Horton new hospital\”. Some ex-patients have been rehoused on Ethel Bailey Close.

Re-development completed about The Manor Farm In reponse to the question \”was there a farm on the land to the south? It bordered Horton Lane. Up to about it was still a thriving organic market garden and sold fruit and vegetables to the public. After that date it gradually became more difficult to maintain as the residents were being moved out. At least up to a couple of years ago it had become more of a garden centre, selling plants to the public from some specially converted barns.

I believe the garden centre is probably still there. Horton Asylum , at Epsom was opened in Built: Architect: George Thomas Hine replica of Bexley Heath Asylum 2, beds – for men and 1, for women, although at first men exceeded women.

He was co-editor from to and thereafter served as associate editor until Easter 1. Only were men. In the proportion of recoveries to admissions was The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 5.

Miss Mary Mitchell Thorburn was matron. Kelly\’s directory 9. His obituaries says \”from until , he was the Deputy Superintendent of Horton Hospital\”. Possible to be closed by At this time, someone with a mental crisis in an office in West London, could find themselves taken to Horton, to the south of London.

Paddington Day Hospital established for rehabilitation. February to Died Summer \”Unfortunately, the doctor decided to send me to Horton Hospital for a rest\” – Joan Hughes \”I begged my GP to get me into hospital so as I could get some care and help\” Daniel Morgan 1, beds, 1, patients on The surgeon who operated on him said there were about seven \”stab wounds to the legs, back, groin and buttock\”.

The most serous was to \”to the abdoman whci punctured the abdominal wall some four inches and also penetrated the wall of the bowel\”.

There was severe internal bleeding and the surgeon said that without prompt treatment Dr McNeill would have died. Trial transcript 1, beds Autumn reported closed and empty map , but in good condition. Redevelopment has now started. See Peter Cracknell\’s photographic tour The developers have renamed it Livingstone Park. This name is not recognised by the council or the post office. A small modern enclave called Horton Haven is used by about 50 ex-patients. In memory of those buried in these grounds between and \”.

Words in black on a simple white plaque fixed to the railings of a field surrounded by trees on Hook Road, near the junction with Horton Road. It was a cemetery for patients from all five institutions. See George Pelham. The \”burial ground All the headstones were removed It has always been referred to as Horton Cemetery\” email Jane Lewis, Surrey History Centre email They cover the dates 4.

A burial plan of the area does not seem to have survived and the removal of the headstones has now made it impossible to try and find exactly where the original plots were sited, re-burying bones – a more detailed report – This says the last funeral took place in Its bids to develop have been refused by the Epsom and Ewell Council.

It is possible that the whole triangle was the farm estate. St Ebbas farm is on the other west side of Hook Road. Long Grove and West Park had their own farms below. One website says each hospital had its own farm. Charles Hubert Bond was medical superintendent from to Ewell County of London War Hospital or Ewell Neurological Hospital for the care and treatment of soldiers and pensioners suffering from neurasthenia or loss of mental balance Hansard This epileptic colony is not mention in Jones and Tillotson\’s pamphlet on epileptic colonies.

They do mention that the Metropolitan Asylums Board established units for epileptics at Edmonton and Brentwood , and that these were taken over by London County Council in The conversion of Ewell Colony to a Mental Hospital may have taken place as part of this process. Later in ? No dormitories with over fifty patients. A Parents and Relatives Group was formed about to campaign for retention of a village community. The council has approved construction of houses and flats on the rest of the site.

Long Grove Asylum , at Epsom built to and opened in June A replica of Horton with differences to make it a little more like a Maryland, USA plan that was favoured. In the design, beds were moved from the main zig-zag crescent to autonomous villas, each with its own unfenced garden. Felix arrested in St Martin\’s in the Fields. He lived in Shaftesbury Avenue.

See procedures for emergency admission. Maria Jose Gonzalez is researching Felix\’s history. Deputy medical superintendent: James Ernest Martin.

Clerk: Alfred J. House Steward: R. Matron: Miss Elspeth MacRae. Inspector: Arthur Heath. This provided links to Tower Hamlets and Hackney on the other side of London , where many patients came from. The Horton Park Children\’s Farm is there now. However, the piggery of Long Grove was to the north-east, so the Long Grove Farm may have stretched round the asylum. David Cochrane says that London County Council replaced the name \”asylum\” by \”hospital\” in If this is so, the first name for West Park given below, from the Hospital Database was never used.

West Park Asylum at Epsom was opened in Referred to by David Cochrane as \”the eleventh and the last great asylum built for London\’s insane\”. Built: Eleventh London County Asylum. Medical superintendent: Norcliffe Roberts. Deputy medical superintendent: Edwin Lancelot Hopkins. Clerk: L. House Steward: J. West Park had 1, beds mental illness and geriatric.

Manor Hospital was the local mental handicap hospital. Horton, Long Grove and St Ebbas were not local hospitals. Autumn reported closed and empty, but in good condition. The local council has produced its own development brief for the site, which the NHS has yet to approve. The site will retain facilities for patients with challenging behaviour and the cottage hospital, which is only about twenty years old. West Park Farm see external link.

Epsom Hospital intensive care unit. However, the empty buildings were taken over as a military hospital. Fourth London General Hospital by early Neurological section established acting as a clearing hospital for these cases. Medical History 1. Maudsley Hospital Medical School was opened in 1. Became a school of the University in December Central London clinics and nursing homes National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic British Hospital for Mental Disorders Beaumont Street, St Marylebone close to Harley Street in census and trade directory consisted almost entirely of nursing homes, some of whose patients were psychiatric but not certified lunatics.

Charlotte Mew died at 37 Beaumont Street in The Medico Psychological Clinic operated from 14 Endsleigh Street from the autumn of and then from Brunswick Square from July to – Medico Psychological was a contemporary term for what we would now call psychiatric. The Tavistock Clinic started in Tavistock Square in Stewart, J. Dicks , p. Psychopathic Clinic became the Portman Clinic. According to his British Medical Journal obituary, Alfred Torrie was \”associated with the Tavistock Clinic, the child guidance movement, and the NationalMarriageGuidanceCouncil from their earliest days\” \”Both clinical and consultancy work was carried out in the Tavistock Clinic until it became part of the new NHS in , and the Institute was founded as a charitable company\”.

However, he resigned in in order to devote his energies to the forthcoming International Congress on Mental Hygiene\” Brody, E. In he obtained a small grant from the Sir Halley Stewart Trust to empirically study the effects of early separation and deprivation.

For this research, he \”wanted to engage a psychiatric social worker\” and hired James Robertson. The Tavistock moved to Malet Place. Then moved to Beaumont Street where it was in the s.

Mayfair or Mayfair Portman Clinic not listed under P. In the Tavistock moved to Swiss Cottage. Supplement to the London Gazette H. It is a self referral service. See 6. The Cassel Hospital was set up to treat the civilian equivalent of shellshock, and admitted its first patient in \”. Cambridge: University Press, Mainly \”a study of the long range results of psychotherapeutic treatment of the neuroses at the Cassel Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders.

This institution, called Swaylands, was founded in , to furnish systematic treatment for the psychoneuroses on the basis that these disabilities had received too little organized attention and management from the medical profession. The interest of the founder, Sir Ernest Cassel, was aroused by the striking manifestations of neuroses among the soldiers in the world war. Ross was, until a few years ago, the medical director and moving spirit of the institution.

Swaylands furnishes rather sumptuous physical accommodations and care for some sixty patients, whose residence varies from two to six months. He was undertaking psychoanalytic training and encouraged other psychoanalysts to work at the Cassel.

It soon developed a psychoanalytic tradition and a psychoanalytic underpinning of the clinical work. Psychosocial nursing practice came to the fore as a way of dealing with regression, associated with intensive individual psychotherapy. The therapeutic community practice evolved from this way of working, and from the experiences of Tom Main at the Northfields Military Hospital during the Second World War.

From that experience the work of the Families Service evolved treating children and their parents. The Families Service specialises in the assessment and treatment of children and families affected by the impact of physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

From about Cassel Adult Service has developed an integrated package of care, combining six months inpatient treatment, with a further two years of group therapy and psychosocial nursing for patients in Greater London a separate Adolescent Service established external source. Mill Hill Emergency Hospital Using a converted public school at Mill Hill. Psychiatrists from the Maudsley Hospital were recruited. Led by W. Their goal was occupational and social psychiatry.

Edgar Jones About Kati Turner a patient in Henderson. Click on the plan for a picture of Cane Hill. Architect: Charles Henry Howell – The ward blocks are arranged around a D shaped network of corridors. Ian Richards describes it as an example of the Pavilion Plan in which the wards where housed in long thin ward blocks arranged around a central corridor. The pavilion design was a development of the straight corridor plan e.

Friern that led on to echelon plan asylums like Severalls. The design was popular in the second half of the 19th century and it was about this time that the Recreation Hall and Water Tower became a standard feature of asylums.

The picture here is from a s AtoZ reproduced on the urban explorations site. South Croydon : Aubrey Warsash Pub. Fountain Asylum Established as a fever hospital in Architect: Thomas W Aldwinckle \”the hospital was redesignated as a mental hospital and became used for the accommodation of the lowest grade of severely subnormal children. In , administration of the hospital passed to the London County Council who retained it as a hospital for mentally defective children.

Pauper lunatics from Croydon went to the Surrey asylum at Cane Hill , and this continued when Croydon became an independent County Borough in However, the \”Lunacy Visiting Committee\” of the new \”County Borough of Croydon\” also made arrangements for patients to be kept in the Isle of Wight County Asylum , others may have gone elsewhere. When he became a psychiatrist, he was generally known as T.

Pasmore, who was appointed as the first medical superintendent before it opened. Kelly\’s Wednesday 5. Medical Superintendent, Edwin S. There was a very high proportion of women to men in comparison with most asylums.

The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 6. Rees moved from Napsbury to be deputy physician superintendent. Rees became superintendent. His \”first act\” was to open the iron gates at the hospital entrance, after which they were not shut again.

Over the next few years, all ward doors were unlocked during the day, while nearly all restraint and isolation of patients were abolished.

Rees was one of the authors. I felt completely at home\”. There was a \”porter\’s lodge\” where he booked in. His legal status is not stated, but he presumably signed in as a voluntary patient. His bed was in a ward \”for light cases – alcoholics and neurotics\”. This part appears civilised. In the morning he sits in the living room of his ward and reads morning papers with other patients. Later he has dinner with others in the dining room.

He also visited the sitting room of the \”best women\’s ward\”, where one woman arranged flowers, another played the piano and three others watched television. Elsewhere in the hospital he visited a \”dormitary crammed with beds\”.

This is the worst ward he has seen – dealing with the \”hard core of chronic patients\”. He said that the old hospital was like a prison and described how staff often had to \”retaliate\” when patients became violent and often \”hit back in self defence\”. Drugs, ECT , insulin and \”open doors\” had put an end to all of that. The Chief Superintendant T. Rees was interviewed.

He described the hospital\’s main successes as the removal of the rails around the hospital and handing over of responsibility to patients. During Rees left Croydon and started a private practice in Harley Street.

He was made a freeman of the borough. Stephen MacKeith may have succeeded Rees at Croydon. May, A. Sheldon and S. The major effects are seen in reduction of readmission rates to the mental hospital, and in a redistribution of patients among the wider range of facilities\” March Letter in Psychiatric Bulletin from Stephen Pasmore, Ham Gate Avenue, Richmond, Surrey, about his father, Edwin S. Pasmore, who was appointed the first Medical Superintendent of that hospital before it was opened, and attributed to him the origin of the term \’mental hospital\’.

Furthermore the hospital was the first of its kind in the country to have an operating theatre and X-ray department to bring it into line with the general hospitals of the day. It has since been renamed the Warlingham Park Hospital.

The Clock Tower, described as hideous in , is now a Grade two listed building. The hospital was closed in February , and demolished in summer , but the clock tower and many trees have been preserved. The site is being redeveloped for housing. A private house before the first world war. Taken over in November with beds for 51 officers. In March , Mrs.

As a Prison Service establishment it has had several roles as a young offender institution, remand centre, and a deportees prison. It became a resettlement prison in \”. Date that outpatients clinics started at Hackney Hospital is not known. But none listed in If the Duly Authorised Officer was summoned to a crisis in Hackney in , the person might be taken by ambulance to St Clements or another London observation unit or directly to Long Grove.

A study in East London published. Reports of the Institute of Community Studies number 7. Before this there were out-patient clinics, but the in-patient beds were at Long Grove Hospital. However, the in-patient beds at Hackney Hospital appear to pre-date – See below].

Born Died 9. April After this date, all hospital admissions for mental illness were to units within the borough. But existing patients remained at Long Grove.

St Lawrences, Caterham , previously the catchment area hospital for mental handicap, ceased taking Hackney patients in Friday 6. In Hackney\’s Director of Social Services told councillors that mentally handicapped people were no longer sent outside the borough \”except in exceptional circumstances\”.

On page 98 of the book , for example, we learn that at Maybury and possibly only at Maybury\” \”we do it all without any chronic units\” P sych. Amongst its last residents were a group of severely disabled children who moved to a hostel in Malpas Road, Hackney.

The Eastern Hospital had a long history as a fever hospital and as a hospital for diseases of the skin. Its use as a home for children with learning difficulties is not mentioned in the extensive historical notes on the Hospital Database.

Hamhp News. This was the then eastern terminus of the Eastern Counties Railway from London. The large building is Essex Hall, intended to be the railway hotel. Instead it became an asylum. For women. Probably renamed St Faith\’s Hospital at this point. See Ewell Epileptic Colony Hospital Plan : beds in , of them for epilepsy, plus 15 acute and 14 geriatric.

Development to be completed by It was then bought and converted by the Metropolitan Asylums Board and operated as St David\’s Hospital for \”sane epileptics\” until For men. Probably renamed St David\’s Hospital at this point. Its archives are the only ones for a private asylum held in the London Metropolitan Archives. In , passed to the London County Council. The nursing staff establishment provides for male and female nurses. At present, the male staff is and the female staff 56 full-time and 66 part-time\” Hackney patients November The only large mental handicap hospital planned to close \”The closure of Darenth was driven by the determination of learning disability managers locally to run an entirely different service and the South East Thames Regional Manager responsible plus the Chief Nurse called Audrey Emerton now Baroness Emerton.

It was very visionary at the time. Clinicians were marginal in that case. External link to review use: \”Luxury housing\” Rossbret entry – archive Pictures on the Old Redhill and Reigate website – archive – pictures not preserved, but may be recoverable from Francis Frith Collection Farmfield Originally an inebriates reformatory \”At an early date after the passing of the Inebriates Act of , the London County Council established a reformatory at Farmfield, near Horley, for the reception of female inebriates.

It soon became evident that more accommodation would be necessary, and the Council accordingly contracted with the National Institution for Inebriates for the reception of all female cases they were unable to receive at Farmfield\” Hansard November just over patients when Peter Whitehead transferred from Rampton. The terms of his licence included not being on the streets after 10pm, not talking to a member of the opposite sex, not walking with a member of the opposite sex and not frequenting dance-halls, public houses or similar places.

Unable to find work, he went to Liverpool and then the Potteries. A priest found him work in Wolverhampton and then he secured a better job on a farm near Newland Bridge.

A nationwide search for possible suspects included questioning Peter on the farm and, as a result, he was returned to Farmfield. Recaptured See lost hospitals of London Farmfield [Priory Group] is a purpose built, bed, low and medium secure hospital for men with with \”enduring mental illness, personality disorder and with mild learning disabilities\”.

Wintle, MD 1. Warneford Asylum, Headington, Oxford. Medical Superintendent: John Ward, married, born Leeds about Oxfordshire and Berkshire County Asylum opened on 1. May Ashurst War Hospital , Littlemore. Under a contract with Surrey, 30 patients, including Edward Sackett were admitted from Brookwood on Autumn Reported open, or closed but empty map English Heritage: Fairmile, Oxfordshire, built as the pauper asylum for Berkshire Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum was opened at Crowthorne, Berkshire, in He made the design for Pentonville Prison , which acted as the model for many others.

Neil Sturrock – email 7. His deputy was William Orange born , died Burt While kneeling at Communion Service, one Sunday, Dr Orange was hit on the head by a patient with a stone hidden in a handkerchief. July W. Meyer MD. Meyer\’s obituary on page of the Journal of Mental Science. William Orange had been Deputy Superintendent and W.

Orange, Chaplain: J. October A. Gray, MD, MRCS Edinburgh appointed Assistant Medical Officer Series of articles by David Nicolson on \”The Morbid Psychology of Criminals\” in the Journal of Mental Science David Nicolson expressed opinion that habitual criminals \”possess an unmistakable physique with rough and irregular outline and a massiveness in the seats of animal expression\” while the accidental criminal \”differs little or nothing from the ordinary run of mortals\” After dealing with the inmates of the asylum, David Nicolson no longer believed most criminals differed physically from non-criminals.

Flemming, R. Some senior officers see below live outside the asylum. The names of patients are given in full. Orange , plans of the asylum, men\’s division, men\’s division – blocks 1 and 6, women\’s division and block plan of the complete asylum , report of the Chaplain Thomas Ashe , statistical tables, report of the Commissioners in Lunacy and post-mortem records Report of the Superintendent – David Nicolson Superintendent still David Nicolson. Chaplain still Thomas Ashe He tells her about a theatrical entertainment at the Asylum that was to happen the next day Friday He goes on to say \”The elections come off next week in the School Room at Crowthorne, so it rather interferes with Mr Sharp\’s concert.

Other concerts are also under way. Brayn, Chaplain: Hugh Wood. Visiting Lunacy Commissioners: F. Needham and C. Bagot article by George Griffith.

Later used for casualty reception. Briefly used as a Royal Marine School of Music. Converted to a mental deficiency hospital about External link includes history Closed use: \”Zoo\” Oxfordshire Mental Health Care Trust www. It was run from London and visited regularly by doctors from the hospital.

There were plans to build a new and larger asylum, but these were not fulfilled at the time\” Parry-Jones, W. Opened \”for the reception of insane officers, soldiers, and women belonging to the army; and in that year four officers, sixty-two non-commissioned officers and privates, and two women were admitted into this hospital\”.

In its principal medical officer was Andrew Smith M. The part of the fort which is appropriated to the residences of the officers is very gloomy, and ill suited for a receptacle for insane persons. Some of the sleeping-rooms for the private soldiers are sufficiently good, but others are dull and cheerless.

The exercising grounds for the officers, and the yards for the soldiers, are cheerful, but are not sufficient in number or size. The buildings and grounds admit of great improvement; but we understand that the inmates of this hospital are about to be removed to a new asylum.

In , about 20 mentally ill soldiers were transferred from Fort Clarence in Rochester to a new house of detention or of observation at Fort Pitt. Morrison, K. A site was purchased but ultimately abandoned, and the Naval Hospital at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, selected to replace permanently for the benefit of the insane patients of the army, that establishment which the Commons had decreed should be built\”. Lockhart Robertson Shorncliffe Barracks, Folkestone used as a temporary asylum.

All patients moved in one day of October to Yarmouth Inmates were transferred to the new Army lunatic asylum at Netley in , an attractive brick building now used as a police training centre\” Morrison, K. Became a hospital for invalided soldiers in , with an asylum added in None had been spent? The accomodation being \”very imperfect He was told that \”a hospital had been procured near Southampton \” were it was hoped \”a building would be erected there which would include a hospital, invalid barracks, and a lunatic asylum\”.

Florence Nightingale started the first Army Medical School there in , but by the s the hospital was closed, and the site converted into a school. See Yarmouth – Bow – and Netley. Jones and Greenberg 5. ECT Electroconvulsive therapy was sometimes used as a punitive measure – although it was not openly admitted.

I have heard the term \’punitive ECT\’ used in the hospital in reference to \”that is what a patient needs\”. Some psychiatrists had a certain faith in ECT and at times patients were threatened with it\” page 14 These tend to be younger than the chronic patients Sometime in the Royal College of Psychiatrists received a request from The regional medical officer of the South East Thames regional health authority saught advice from the Royal College of Psychiatrists on giving ECT to non-consenting patients.

Ths led to the guidelines Wikipedia. This aerial view was sent me by Brian Bradley. It is included on Chartham Paper Mill\’s intranet as part of its heritage. Brian says that Canterbury City Council have refused Wilcon Homes permission to knock down the old hospital water tower centre right in photo as they consider it a significant landmark that could be turned into some sort of viewing tower.

The photograph looks as if it may have been a postcard. Kendall Junior. Superintendent: Dr Charles Lockhart Robertson selected from 83 applicants. The first patients came from other private? On Call p. Medical Superintendent: Samuel Blutes D. Williams unmarried, age 41 Physician. Assistant Officer: Thomas Blair Worthington unmarried, age 32 Kelly\’s Directory: \”The Sussex County Lunatic Asylum, about one mile south-east from Haywards Heath railway station, but locally situated in the in the parish of Wivelsfield, stands on an eminence in grounds covering nearly acres: it was opened 25 July, , and is a structure of brick, in the Lombardo-Venetian style, erected under the superintendence of Mr H.

Kendall, jun. Woodhouse, housekeeper; William Thomas Buckle, head male attendant; T. Lenton, storekeeper. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 7. Simon Cornwall: Closed in Standing derelict.

Targetted by arsonists? June – External links mechanised org tours derelict building and says \”Further Reading: Hellingly is one of the most documented of asylums- and the sites below offer the most interesting interpretations. Sub-Urban has a fascinating \”Then and Now\” section comparing the hospital as it stands with images from the s – Exploration Station has reminiscences of former staff, patients and local residents; also contains countless photos – Urbex is the most accessible tour of the hospital; an extended journey through all of the main points of interest – Abandoned Britain is a black and white tour that perhaps comes closest to capturing Hellingly\’s calm and stillness\” Mechanised Spring Roffey Park Rehabilitation Centre?

Essex County Lunatic Asylum opened Probably built for patients, it had patients in Architect: H. Kendall and R. Pope: See initials in brickwork [try again] Simon Cornwall\’s website: \”It consisted of two main blocks orientated north to south and facing east, with miscellaneous buildings dotted behind these to the west. The use of red and black bricks, the stone mullion windows, and the use of octagonal towers gave the hospital a medieval appearance. They were Blocks A, B and C. The brewery was converted into a laboratory and mortuary.

Thirteen of the patients died. Thirty three \”true\” cases identified by bacteriological methods. Typhoid epidemic in led to two deaths All Essex patients \”boarded out\” in the asylums of other counties returned to Brentwood, occupying most of the beds vacated by the patients who went to Goodmayes. By there were several hundred more patients boarded out. Some were still there in The boarded out patients went there.

Typhoid epidemic in 82 patients and 55 staff affected. By , deaths fell to Later, a fortnightly clinic in a house at Woodford and at Orsett Lodge Hospital. This was a convalescent unit for male patients. A unit for women was not built because of the war. He was 15th Bt. We had old Powell before that and he was horrible. Two hundred pre-frontal leucotomies had been performed by Also in Brentwood: St Faith\’s Hospital epilepsy. The chimney can be seen at the back of the tower.

Originally the stack was a third taller, but was reduced in the second world war because it posed a threat to crippled US bombers landing at Boxted airfield near by. The chimney takes the fumes from the oil and gas fired boilers that heat the water. There were four large steam boilers and one which was half size. In the event of electrical power loss to the hospital site, a large generating set made the site self sufficient if necessary.

Also in Colchester Health District many mental handicap units. Ingrebourne Centre in the grounds of St George\’s Hospital, Suttons Lane, Hornchurch, Essex, RM12 6RS – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – St George\’s Hospital built. George\’s hospital, Sutton\’s Lane, Hornchurch, was built by Essex county council and opened in as an old people\’s home called Suttons Institution.

In it was taken over by the Ministry of Health as a hospital and was given its present name. It has over beds, used mainly for geriatric cases. The Ingrebourne Centre, which is an independent part of the hospital, provides psychiatric treatment for 20 resident and many day patients. He was Consultant in charge of the Ingrebourne Centre to \”He saw an acute general hospital psychiatric unit evolve into a dynamic psychotherapeutic community\”.

He and the Registrar Ray lived in the hospital grounds. Millard The unit was, physically, very unlike a hospital ward. It was a completely detached prefabricated quadrangular building in the grounds of the hospital. The ground floor had bedrooms that each accommodated two or three patients. The medical staff ultimately consisted of one consultant [Richard Crocket] nominally available for three half-days per week, but in practice attending five half-days weekly; and a senior [Hamish Anderson] and junior [Ray Senior Hospital Medical Officer and Registrar respectively, Other staff included an assistant matron, a nursing sister, three staff nurses and four nursing assistants; a psychologist; a psychiatric social worker; and an occupational therapist who later changed her role to social therapist.

Under the new arrangements a strong interest in psychotherapy and social methods of treatment developed, covering child psychiatry as well as adult psychiatry Jungian picture Miller became a patient. He wrote in \”after receiving four year\’s treatment at the Ingrebourne Centre, I have been blessed with perfect serenity when facing a visit to hospital. My previous psychiatric treatment included E.

In he was one of the first sheltered workers. He helped for several years on the bar at the annual party for the elderly patients in the main part of St George\’s Hospital. July \”It was only with the appointment of a full-time senior psychiatrist in July that the move to a full therapeutic community approach developed\”. Crocket \”the arrival from Dingleton to a newly- established SHMO post of a fellow Scot, Hamish Anderson, which stimulated the addition of large group methods and the evolution over the following few months of a fully-fledged therapeutic community\”.

Millard Anderson introduced large groups on his arrival, but, at first, other clinical commitments were allowed to prevent him and members of the nursing staff from attending regularly. Between July and April the arrangements were re-thought so that staff attendance was regular.

Millard The man with the motor-bike shows the way \”By twenty day-patient places had been added to the twenty beds\”. Crocket February, Appointment of a full-time senior psychiatrist. The two following years 1. She was still a patient in Millard \” I had no acquaintance with groups other than as an adjunct to occupational therapy and no idea of the community as an all embracing therapeutic concept. My personal analysis had barely got itself underway.

The community was in a state of huge bereavement staff and patients subsequent to the departure of two much loved charismatics who were very experienced and therapeutically deft. The transference was negative to the point of critical hostility expressed in sullen silences and extravagant acting out.

Richard was Thus his own attendance at groups was sparse Richard organised with the director of the Tavistock Clinic for me to attend weekly behind a one-way screen at his psychotherapy demonstrations with a therapeutic group. I profited immensely and I like to think quickly. Lewellyn-Smith explained to us that, as an experiment, the hospital authorities were starting a new project to give certain patients the opportunity of working for a few hours each week We were given to understand that we were to treat this arrangement just as if we were working for an employer in the usual way, and to commence work punctually and conduct ourselves generally as if we were working for an outside firm.

Our first contract was obtained from a plastic manufacturing firm and was painting plastic globes. From a financial point of view, it was not very successful.. Bertram A. Miller M. One of the Sheltered Workers continued Crocket Article? Clark, Fulbourne Hospital Letter? Duffield Letter? George\’s Hospital, Hornchurch, Essex. Richard Crocket and Ronald A.

Sandison the consultant at Powick Hospital near Worcester who \”treated\” 1, of his patients with LSD over a period of 12 years spent the next twelve months editing the Proceedings of this conference. December Incentive – early stages of the patient led community? Many of our group who were suffering from a neurosis are now back at industry. We hold a meeting once a week under the guidance and supervision of Mrs. Garner, when we discuss our little differences that may arise. We all have our disabilities; some are handicapped and cannot lift heavy articles, and occasionally we are very grateful for a helping hand in the loading and unloading of boxes by resident patients who are physically fit, but generally speaking, working as a team we get along very well.

We are very cramped for space and I understand there is a long waiting list for this particular job, so I do hope the power that be will make an effort to provide a larger workshop, as in my humble opinion, this kind of treatment is very beneficial\” Bertram A. One of the Sheltered Workers Tuesday She did not attend the \”major therapeutic groups\”.

He was trying to get a place for her in a boarding school. A group of patients outside the Ingrebourne Centre in ? Wednesday 3. My mind was still set on dying, but my heart was responding to the grass. AR Breakdown. Ipswich Borough Asylum Built: Opened Ipswich, IP3 8LS, about Still open, no plans to close. Simon Cornwall. B of the parish of C aged about years. In consideration thereof we do hereby promise to pay to H J Treasurer of the aforesaid Endowment or to his order the Summ of Four Shillings per Week and to pay the Same Monthly for so long time as he shall remain in the aforesaid House and also to allow for all Damages and Wasts that shall be committed by the said A B and to Supply him with necessary Cloathing during his abode there, and if he shall dye there, do promise to remove the Corps or else to be at the charge of Burying him from the aforesaid House in witness whereof we now Set our Hand the Day and Year above written.

Patients who should have been admitted to that Asylum were temporarily admitted by the Norwich City Asylum. Still seems very much alive. One of the most striking is the Naval Hospital, which was originally for sailors wounded in the Napoleonic Wars. It then became a barracks, but was converted back to a hospital 40 years later and was used to accommodate sailors who were mentally ill. Hence the navy slang to describe those sailors who are showing signs of mental wear and tear is going to Yarmouth.

Pakington, Esq. Opened ? Jonathan Poppy. It presented, two massive round towers, flanking a square curtain, beneath which was the arch. Hansard 3. The Admiralty converted the hospital to a foot barracks. History, gazetteer, and directory of Norfolk , April passage written Excursions in the County of Norfolk \”The most splendid public ediface in Yarmouth is the royal barracks originally intended for a naval hospital on the South Denes.

Previously at Dunston Lodge. Appointed after a short service as Assistant Surgeon in the Army. This was written by Charles Lockhart Robertson. He wrote to the Secretary at War: \” It cannot, I think, be \”questioned by any competent member of the medical profession, that the practice of frequently handing over the insane patients of the army to the care of officers quite unconversant with the practice of this special department of medicine, is alike injurious to their interests, and to the scientific status of the Military Lunatic Asylum.

In he was appointed Medical Superintendent of the Sussex County Asylum , then in course of erection. This post he held until , when he was appointed Lord Chancellor\’s Visitor. He had returned to Britain in After retiring from the army in , he operated Arden House Private Lunatic Asylum at Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire which he also owned from to The lunatic patients at Yarmouth consisted of 19 officers, 69 soldiers, and 5 women The Secretary at War having requested our opinion as to the best mode of providing for those inmates, we named Grove Hall , Bow, as a well-conducted asylum, and capable of affording proper accommodation for the soldiers and women; and Coton Hill Lunatic Asylum Hospital, an institution under good management, near Stafford, for the officers But we trust the arrangements thus made are \”merely of a temporary character\”.

The military patients were removed and the place fitted to receive wounded from the Baltic, but none ever came\”. After some considerable difficulty he had found a building, an unused barrack at Yarmouth exactly fitted for the purpose; he had reported this to the Government, who had sent down a medical officer, whose report was unfavourable.

He was not discouraged; he obtained leave from the Government of the day to take down other officers, and at last he prevailed upon the Government to have the lunatics transferred to that place. He was astonished to find that they had been retransferred again to Chatham. The buildings in question belonged to the Admiralty, and as there was an expectation of a large number of invalid seamen during the war, the Admiralty had reclaimed the property, and the War Department had no choice but to give it up.

Eighty inmates were received the same year September from Haslar , making a total of It is stated by several writers that the earliest English provincial newspaper is believed to be the Norwich Postman , which was published in at the price of a penny, and which bore the quaint statement, that a halfpenny would not be refused.

Newspaper proprietors, publishers, and editors were then evidently, so far as Norwich is concerned, less strong than they are now in their own conceit, and in their belief in the press as an organ of great power. York and Leeds followed in , Manchester in , and Oxford in It was not, however, until advertising became an important branch of commercial speculation that the provincial press began in any way to flourish. Now the journals published in our largest country towns [7] command extensive circulations, and are regarded by many advertising agents, whose opinions are fairly worth taking, as being much more remunerative media than our best London papers.

It would seem, however, that the largest class of advertisers, the general public, who employ no agents, and who consider a large sale everything that is necessary, ignore the argument of the true expert, and lose sight of the fact that, no matter how extensive a circulation may be, it is intrinsically useless unless flowing through the channel which is fairly likely to effect the purpose for which the advertisement is inserted.

It is customary to see a sheet, detached from the paper with which it is issued, full of advertisements, which are, of course, unread by all but those who are professedly readers of public announcements, and who are also, of course, not only in a decided minority, but not at all the people to whom the notices are generally directed.

The smallest modicum of thought will show how grievous is the error which leads to such a result, and how much better it is to regard actual circulation but as so much evidence as to the value of an advertisement only, and not as a whole, sole, and complete qualification. Not in any incautious way do those who are most qualified to judge of value for money act.

Turn to any paper of repute, and it will be seen that the professional advertiser, the theatrical manager, the publisher, the auctioneer, and [8] the others whom constant practice has made wary, lay out their money on quite a different principle from that of the casual advertiser. They have learned their lesson, and if they pay extra for position or insertion, they know that their outlay is remunerative; whereas, if it were not governed by caution and system, it would be simply ruinous.

In fact, advertising is a most expensive luxury if not properly regulated, and a most valuable adjunct when coolness and calculation are brought to bear upon it as accessories.

The heavy duties originally imposed upon newspapers, both on them and their advertisements, were at first a considerable check to the number of notices appearing in them. For, in the first place, the high price of the papers narrowed the limits of their application; and, in the second, the extra charge on the advertisements made them above the reach of almost all but those who were themselves possessed of means, or whose business it was to pander to the unholy and libidinous desires of the wealthy.

This, we fancy, will be extensively proved by a reference to the following pages; for while it is our endeavour to keep from this book all really objectionable items, we are desirous that it shall place before the reader a true picture of the times in which the advertisements appeared; and we are not to be checked in our duty by any false delicacy, or turned from the true course by any squeamishness, which, unfortunately for us in these days, but encourages the vices it attempts to ignore.

This not being considered sufficient, a further addition of a halfpenny was made 29 Geo. An additional halfpenny was also charged on a supplement, which may be regarded, when the use of supplements in the present day is taken into consideration, as an indirect tax on advertisements.

There are, however, a large number of good and useful papers still flourishing, which would never have been published but for the repeal of the newspaper stamp duty. To such repeal many rich men owe their prosperity, while to the same source may now be ascribed the poverty of numbers who were once affluent.

At this time, of course, the old papers also reduced their rates, and from thence has grown a system of newspaper reading and advertising which twenty years ago could hardly have been imagined. Now almost every one buys a penny paper for himself, and with the increase in the circulation of newspapers has, in proportionate ratio, gone on the increase in the demand for advertisements.

The supply has, as every one knows, been in no way short of the demand. The repeal of the paper duty in also affected newspapers [10] much, though naturally in a smaller degree than the abolition of the compulsory stamp.

Still the effect on both the papers and their advertisements—especially as concerns those journals which were enabled to still farther reduce their rates—was considerable, and deserves to be noted.

In September the compulsory stamp, which had been retained for postal purposes, was abolished, and on the 1st of October papers were first sent by post with a halfpenny stamp affixed on the wrappers, and not on the journals themselves. But it was to the abolition of the impost upon advertisements that their present great demand and importance can be most directly traced.

For many years a very heavy tax was charged upon every notice published in a paper and paid for, until no less than 3s. People then, we should imagine—in fact, as application to the papers of that time proves—were not so fond of cutting a long advertisement into short and separate pieces as they are now, for every cut-off rule then meant a charge of 3s. Fancy what the returns would be if 3s. It seems almost too great a sum for calculation. There is no doubt, however, that many people would be very glad to do the figures for a very slight percentage on the returns, which would be fabulous, and which would, if properly calculated, amaze many of those laudatores temporis acti who, without reason or provocation, are always deploring the decay of everything, and who would unhesitatingly affirm in their ignorance that even newspapers and newspaper advertisements have deteriorated in tone and quantity since the good old times, of which they prove they know nothing by their persistent [11] praises.

Certainly if they did say this, they would not be much more wrong than they are generally when lamenting over a period which, could it but return, they would be, as a rule, the very first to object to. In , four years after the reduced charge of 1s. As it will doubtless prove interesting to those who take an interest in the growth and increase of newspapers, as well as in those of advertisements, we append it:—. The reduction to which we have alluded was followed in by the total abolition of the advertisement duty, the effect of which can be best appreciated by a glance at the columns of any daily or weekly paper, class or general, which possesses a good circulation.

The first paper published in Ireland was a sheet called Warranted Tidings from Ireland , and this appeared during [12] the rebellion of ; but the first Irish newspaper worthy of the name was the Dublin Newsletter , commenced in The Limerick Chronicle , the oldest Irish provincial newspaper, dates from Ireland has now nearly newspapers, most of them celebrated for the energy of their language and the extreme fervour of their political opinions. Their Conservatism and Liberalism are nearly equally divided; about a score take independent views, and nearly fifty completely eschew politics.

Irish newspapers flourish as vehicles for advertisement, and their tariffs are about on a par with those of our leading provincial journals. Colonial newspapers are plentiful and good, and the best of them filled with advertisements of a general character at fairly high rates.

Those papers published in Melbourne are perhaps the best specimens of colonial journalism, and best among these are the Argus and Age daily , and the Australasian and Leader weekly.

In fact, we have hardly a weekly paper in London that is fit to compare on all-round merits with the last-named, which is a complete representative of the best class of Australian life, and contains a great show of advertisements, which do much to enlighten the reader as to Antipodean manners and customs.

American newspapers are of course plentiful, and their advertisements, as will be shown during the progress of this volume, are often of an almost unique character. Throughout the United States, newspapers start up like rockets, to fall like sticks; but now and then a success is made, and if once Fortune is secured by an adventurous [13] speculator, she is rarely indeed allowed to escape.

The system of work on American U. This is more particularly the case with regard to the Herald , which has an immense circulation and great numbers of highly-priced advertisements, most of which are unfortunately regarded more in connection with the amount of money they produce to the proprietor than in reference to any effect, moral or otherwise, they may have on the community. It is the boast of American journalists that they have papers in obscure towns many hundreds of miles inland, any one of which contains in a single issue as much news—news in the strictest meaning of the word—as the London Times does in six.

And, singular as it may at first sight seem, there is a great element of truth about the statement, the telegraph being used in the States with a liberality which would drive an English proprietor to the depths of black despair. This Telegraph Company charges very high rates, and the only visible means by which this system of journalism is successfully carried out is that of advertisements, which are comparatively more plentiful in these papers than in the English, and are charged for at considerably higher rates.

It is almost impossible to tell the number of papers published throughout the United States of America, each individual State being hardly aware of the quantity it contains, or how many have been born and died within the current twelvemonths.

The Americans are a truly great people, but they have not yet settled down into a regular system, so far, at all events, as newspapers and advertisements are concerned. The first paper published in America is said to have been the Boston Newsletter , which made its appearance in One firm in this city, in the drug business, expends 20, dollars a year in job printing, and 30, dollars in advertising. A clothing firm has expended 50, dollars in advertising in six months.

The former, the leading journal of the day, of independent politics and magnificent proportions, stands forth first, and, to use a sporting phrase, has no second, so far is it in front of all others as regards advertisements, as well as on other grounds. This is rather a change for the organ of Peterborough Court, which little more than eighteen years ago was started with good advertisements to the extent of seven shillings and sixpence. The Telegraph proprietors do not, however, get all the profit out of the advertisements, for in its early and struggling days they were glad, naturally, to close with advertisement agents, who agreed to take so many columns a day at the then trade [16] price, and who now have a vast deal the best of the bargain.

To such lucky accidents, which occur often in the newspaper world, are due the happy positions of some men, who live upon the profits accruing from their columns, and ride in neat broughams, oblivious of the days when they went canvassing afoot, and have almost brought themselves to the belief that they are gentlemen, and always were such.

This must be the only bitter drop in the cup of the otherwise happy possessors of the Telegraph , which is at once a mine of wealth to them, and an instrument by which they become quite a power in the state. They can, however, well afford the lucky advertisement-agents their profits, and, looking back, may rest satisfied that things are as they are.

But there are many daily papers in London besides the Times and Telegraph , and all these receive a plentiful share of advertisements. The Standard has, within the past few years, developed its resources wonderfully, and may be now considered a good fair third in the race for wealth, and not by any means a distant third, so far as the Telegraph is concerned.

This paper has a most extensive circulation, being the only cheap Conservative organ in London, if we may except the Hour , and as it offers to advertisers a repetition of their notices in the Evening Standard , it is not surprising that, spacious as are its advertisement columns, it manages to fill them constantly, and at a rate which would have considerably astonished its old proprietors.

The Daily News , which a few years back reduced its price to one penny, has, since the Franco-Prussian war, been picking up wonderfully, and with its increased health as a paper its outer columns have proportionally improved in appearance; many experienced advertisers have a great regard for the News , which they look upon as offering a good return for investments.

An important body is this committee, a body which feels that the eye of Europe is upon it, and which therefore takes copious notes of everything; is broad wideawake, and is not to be imposed on. But it is a kindly and beneficent body, as its purpose shows; and a little licence can well be afforded to a committee which gives its time and trouble, to say nothing of voting its money, in the interest of the widow and the fatherless.

The Hour is a new journal, started in opposition to the Standard , and professing the same politics. In referring to the foregoing journals, we have made no remarks beyond those to which we are guided by their own published statements, and we have intended nothing invidious in the order of selection. For obvious reasons we shall say nothing of the evening papers, beyond that all seem to fill their advertisement columns with ease, and to be excellent mediums of publicity. The weekly press and the provincial press can tell their own story without assistance.

In the former the advertisements are fairly classed, according to the pretensions of the papers or the cause they adopt, while with the provincials [18] it is the story of the London dailies told over again. Manchester and Liverpool possess magnificent journals, full of advertisements and of large circulation, and so do all other large towns in the country; but we doubt much if, out of London, Glasgow is to be beaten on the score of its papers or the energy of its advertisers.

Mr Watts, of the British Museum, has, however, proved that the several numbers of this journal to be found in our national library are gross forgeries; and, indeed, the most inexperienced eye in such matters can easily see that neither their type, paper, spelling, nor composition are much more than one instead of upwards of two centuries and a half old. The researches of Mr J. Watts, of the British Museum, have proved these to be forgeries, executed about The full title of No.

Fifteen years later these figures were considerably increased—nearly doubled; but since the development of the Pacific States it has been almost impossible to tell the number of papers which have sprung into existence, every mining camp and every village being possessed of its organ, some of which have died, and some of which are still flourishing.

A professed and apparently competent critic assures us that there are quite newspapers now in the States, and that at least a tithe of them are dailies.

I t seems indeed singular that we are obliged to regard advertising as a comparatively modern institution; for, as will be shown in the progress of this work, the first advertisement which can be depended upon as being what it appears to be was, so far as can be discovered, published not much more than two hundred years ago.

But though we cannot find any instances of business notices appearing in papers before the middle of the seventeenth century, mainly because there were not, so far as our knowledge goes, papers in which to advertise, there is little doubt that the desire among tradesmen and merchants to make good their wares has had an existence almost as long as the customs of buying and selling, and it is but natural to suppose that advertisements in some shape or form have existed not only from time immemorial, but almost for all time.

Public notices also were posted about in the first days of the children of Israel, the utterances of the kings and prophets being inscribed on parchments and exposed in the high places of the cities. It was also customary, early in the Christian era, for a scroll to be exhibited when any of the Passion or other sacred plays were about to be performed, and comparatively recently we have received positive intelligence that in Pompeii and similar places [20] advertising by means of signs and inscriptions was quite common.

Of the Romans, however, more is known. Some streets were with them known by means of signs. A correspondent writing to Notes and Queries , in answer to a question in reference to early advertising, says that the mode adopted by the Hebrews appears to have been chiefly by word of mouth, not by writing. The matters thus proclaimed were chiefly of a sacred kind, as might be expected under a theocracy; and we have no evidence that secular affairs were made the subject of similar announcements.

In one instance, indeed Isa. The Greeks came a step nearer to our idea of advertising, for they made their public announcements by writing as well as orally.

His duties as crier appear to have been restricted, with few exceptions, to state announcements and to great occasions. He gave notice, however, of sales. On these the laws were written, to be displayed for public inspection.

The Romans largely advertised private as well as public matters, and by writing as well as by word of mouth. Hawkers cried their own goods. Thus Cicero speaks of one who cried figs, Cauneas clamitabat De Divin. But the Romans also advertised, in a stricter sense of the term, by writing. The bills were called libelli , and were used for advertising sales of estates, for absconded debtors, and for things lost or found.

On the walls of Pompeii have been discovered various advertisements. There will be a dedication or formal opening of certain baths. Thus a suspended shield served as the sign of a tavern Quintil.

Among the French, advertising appears to have become very general towards the close of the sixteenth century. In particular, placards attacking private character had, in consequence of the religious wars, become so numerous and outrageous, that subsequently, in , the Government found it necessary to interpose for their repression. Thus there have been found a goat, the sign of a dairy, and a mule driving a mill, the sign of a baker. At the door of a school was the highly suggestive and not particularly pleasant sign to pupils of a boy being birched.

Like to our own signs of two brewers carrying a tun slung on a pole, a Pompeian publican had two slaves represented above his door carrying an amphora, and another dispenser of drink had a painting of Bacchus pressing a bunch of grapes. It is also probable that the various artificers of Rome used their tools as signs over their workshops and residences, as it is found that they were sculptured on their tombs in the catacombs.

On the tombstone of Diogenes, the grave-digger, there is a pickaxe and a lamp; Banto and Maxima have the tools of carpenters, a saw, an adze, and a chisel; Veneria, a tire-woman, has a mirror and a comb. Even the modern custom of punning on the name, so common on signboards, finds its precedent on these stones.

The grave of Dracontius was embellished with a dragon, that of Onager with a wild ass, and that of Umbricius with a shady tree. It requires, therefore, but the least possible imagination to see that all these symbols and advertisements were by no means confined to the use of the dead, but were extensively used in the interests of the living. Large illustration: top kB bottom kB. Street advertising, in its most original form among us, was therefore without doubt derived from the Romans; and this system gradually grew, until, in the Middle Ages, there was hardly a house of business without its distinctive sign or advertisement; which was the more necessary, as in those days numbers to houses were unknown.

The family arms always hung in front of the house, and the most conspicuous object in those arms gave a name to the establishment amongst travellers, who, unacquainted with the mysteries of heraldry, called a lion gules or azure by the vernacular name of the Red or Blue Lion. Such coats of arms gradually became a very popular intimation that there was—.

And innkeepers began to adopt them, hanging out red lions and green dragons as the best way to acquaint the public that they offered food and shelter. Still, as long as civilisation was only at a low ebb, the so-called open houses few, and competition trifling, signs were of but little use.

A few objects, typical of the trade carried on, would suffice; a knife for the cutler, a stocking for the hosier, a hand for the glover, a pair of scissors for the tailor, a bunch of grapes for the vintner, fully answered public requirements.

Particular trades continued to be confined to particular streets; the desideratum then was to give to each shop a name or token by which it might be mentioned in conversation, so that it could be recommended and customers sent to it. Those that could advertised their name by a rebus—thus, a hare and a bottle stood for Harebottle, and two cocks for Cox.

Others, whose names could represent, adopted pictorial objects; and as the quantity of these augmented, new subjects were continually required. The animal kingdom was ransacked, from the mighty elephant to the humble bee, from the eagle to the sparrow; the vegetable kingdom, from the palm-tree and cedar to the marigold and daisy; everything on the earth and in the firmament above it was put under contribution.

Finally, as all signs in a town were painted by the same small number of individuals, whose talents and imagination were limited, it followed that the same subjects were often repeated, introducing only a change in the colour for a difference.

From the foregoing can be traced the gradual growth of street advertising until it has reached its present extensive pitch; and though the process may be characterised as slow, no one who looks around at the well-covered hoardings and the be-plastered signs on detached and prominent [25] houses can doubt that it is sure.

Proclamations, and suchlike official announcements, were probably the first specimens of street advertising, as we now understand the term; but it was not until printing became general, and until the people became conversant with the mysteries of reading and writing, that posters and handbills were to any extent used.

Mention is made in of a tradesman named Jonathan Holder, haberdasher, of the city of London, who gave to every purchaser to the extent of a guinea a printed list of the articles kept in stock by him, with the prices affixed.

This utterance now seems ridiculous; but in the course of another two centuries many orthodox opinions of the present day will receive as complete a downfall as that just recorded. Within the recollections of men who are still young street advertising has considerably changed. Twenty years ago the billsticker was a nuisance of the most intolerable kind, and though we can hardly now consider him a blessing, his habits have changed very much for the better.

Never heeding the constant announcement to him to beware, the billsticker cared nothing for the privacy of dead walls, or, for the matter of that, of dwelling-houses and street doors; and though he was hardly ever himself to be seen, his disfigurative work was a prominent feature of the metropolis. It was also considered by him a point of honour—if the term may be used in connection with billstickers—to paste over the work of a rival; and so the hoardings used to present the most heterogeneous possible appearance, and though bills were plentiful, their intelligibility was of a very limited description.

Sunday morning early used to be a busy time with the wandering billsticker. Provided with a light cart and an assistant, he would make a raid on [26] a whole district, sticking his notices and disappearing with marvellous rapidity. And how he would chuckle as he drove away, more especially if, in addition to disfiguring a private wall, he had succeeded in covering over the handiwork of a rival!

For this reason the artful billsticker used to select a time when it was still early enough to evade detection, and yet late enough to deface the work of those who had gone before him.

Billsticking was thus an art attended with some difficulties; and it was not until the advent of contractors, like Willing, Partington, and others, that any positive publicity could be depended upon in connection with posting. A generation ago one of the most popular songs of the day commenced something like this—. The advent of advertisement contractors, who purchased the right, exclusive and absolute, to stick bills on a hoarding, considerably narrowed the avocations of what might almost have been called the predatory billsticker.

Placard advertising, of an orderly, and even ornamental, character, has assumed extensive proportions at most of the metropolitan railway stations, the agents to whom we have just referred having extended their operations in the direction of blank spaces on the walls, which they sublet to the general advertising public.

Often firms which advertise on an extensive scale themselves contract with the railway companies, and not a few have extended their announcements from the stations to the sides of the line, little enamelled plates being used for this purpose. Any one having a vacant space at the side of his house, or a blank wall to the same, may, provided he live in anything like a business thoroughfare, and that the vantage place is free from obstruction, do advantageous business with an [28] advertisement contractor; and, as matters are progressing, we may some day expect to see not only the private walls of the houses in Belgrave Square and suchlike fashionable localities well papered, but the outsides and insides of our public buildings utilised as well by the hand of the advertiser.

One thing is certain, no one could say that many of the latter would be spoiled, no matter what the innovation to which they were subjected.

The most recent novelty in advertising has been the introduction of a cabinet, surmounted by a clock face, into public-house bars and luncheon rooms. These cabinets are divided into spaces of say a superficial foot each, which are to be let off at a set price.

Why this should be we are not prepared to say. We are more able to show why it should not be; for no man, advertisement contractor or otherwise, should, under fair commercial conditions, ask another to do what he would not do himself. So we are satisfied to rest content with the knowledge that what we have stated is fact, however incongruous it may seem, which any one can endorse by applying himself to the ethics of advertising.

Certainly, in the instance quoted, the matter looks very suggestive; perhaps it depends on the paradox, that he who is most anxious that others should advertise is least inclined to do so himself. Not long ago the promoters of a patent umbrella, which seems to have gone the mysterious way of all umbrellas, patent or otherwise, and to have disappeared, availed themselves of a great boat-race to attract public attention to their wares.

Skiffs fitted with sails, on each of which were painted the patent parapluie, and a recommendation to buy [29] it, dotted the river, and continually evaded the efforts of the Conservancy Police, who were endeavouring to marshal all the small craft together, so as to leave a clear course for the competitors. Every time one of these advertising boats broke out into mid-stream, carrying its eternal umbrella between the dense lines of spectators, the advertisement was extremely valuable, for straying boats of any kind are on such occasions very noticeable, and these were of course much more so.

Another innovation in the way of advertisements was that, common a few years back, of stencilling the flagstones. At first this system assumed very small proportions, a parallelogram, looking like an envelope with a black border that had been dropped, and containing the address of the advertiser, being the object of the artist entrusted with the mission. Gradually, however, the inscriptions grew, until they became a perfect nuisance, and were put down—if the term applies to anything on such a low level—by the intervention of the police and the magistrates.

The undertakers were the greatest sinners in this respect, the invitations to be buried being most numerous and varied. They can hardly think that people will die to oblige them and do good for trade, yet in some districts they will, with the most undeviating persistency, drop their little books, informing you how, when, where, and at what rates you may be buried with economy or despatch, or both, as the case may be, [30] down your area, or poke them under your door, or into the letter-box.

More, it is stated on good authority, than one pushing contractor, living in a poor neighbourhood, obtains a list of all the folk attended by the parish doctor, and at each of the houses leaves his little pamphlet, let us hope with the desire of cheering and comforting the sick and ailing.

To such a man Death must come indeed as a friend, so long, of course, as the grim king comes to the customers only. A few years back, when hoardings were common property, the undertakers had a knack of posting their dismal little price-lists in the centre of great broadsheets likely to attract any unusual share of attention.

They were not particular, however, and any vantage space, from a doorpost to a dead wall, came within their comprehension. He armed one of his assistants with a great can of blacking and a brush, and instructed him to go by secret ways and deface the opposition placards. But ultimately these two men of colour met and fought with the instruments provided by their employers.

There is another small bill feature of advertising London which is so objectionable that we will pass it by with a simple thankful notice that its promoters are sometimes overtaken by tardy but ironhanded justice. The first one made its appearance at Hyde Park Corner, and though, in deference to public opinion, it [31] did not remain there very long, less aristocratic neighbourhoods had to bear their adornments until the complete failure of the attempt to obtain advertisements to fill the vacant spaces showed how fatuous was the project.

The last of these posts, we remember, was opposite the Angel at Islington, and there, assisted by local faith and indolence, it remained until a short time back. But it too has gone now, and with it has almost faded the recollection of these hideous nightmares of advertising. Mr Smith, who had charge of this department of the Adelphi, has published a statement which gives the totals as follows:—10,, adhesive labels which, by the way, were an intolerable nuisance , 30, small cuts of the guillotine scene, reams of note-paper, , business envelopes, 60, stamped envelopes, six-sheet cuts of Bastile scene, 5,, handbills, six-sheet posters, slips, 1,, cards heartshaped, twenty-eight sheet posters, and 20, folio cards for shop windows.

This was quite exclusive of newspaper wrappers and various other ingenious means of attracting attention to the play throughout the United Kingdom. Among other forms of advertising, that on the copper coinage must not be forgotten.

And now, having given a hurried and summarised glance at the growth and progress of advertising of all kinds and descriptions, from the earliest periods till the present time, we will begin at the beginning, and tell the story with all its ramifications, mainly according to those best possible authorities, the advertisements themselves.

T hough it would be quite impossible to give any exact idea as to the period when the identical first advertisement of any kind made its appearance, or what particular clime has the honour of introducing a system which now plays so important a part in all civilised countries, there need be no hesitation in ascribing the origin of advertising to the remotest possible times—to the earliest times when competition, caused by an increasing population, led each man to make efforts in that race for prominence which has in one way or other gone on ever since.

As soon as the progress of events or the development of civilisation had cast communities together, each individual member naturally tried to do the best he could for himself, and as he, in the course of events, had naturally to encounter rivals in his way of life, it is not hard to understand that some means of preventing a particular light being hid under a bushel soon presented itself.

That this means was an advertisement is almost certain; and so almost as long as there has been a world—or quite as long, using the term as it is best understood now—there have been advertisements.

At this early stage of history, almost every trade and profession was still exercised by itinerants, who proclaimed their wares or their qualifications with more or less flowery encomiums, with, in fact, the advertisement verbal, which, under some circumstances, is still very useful. Then another method of obtaining publicity became requisite, and the crier stepped forward to act as a medium between the provider and the consumer.

This is, however, but another form of the same system, and, like its simpler congener, has still an existence, though not an ostentatious one. When the art of writing was invented, the means of extending the knowledge which had heretofore been simply cried, was greatly extended, and advertising gradually became an art to be cultivated.

Very soon after the invention of writing in its rudest form, it was turned to account in the way of giving publicity to events in the way of advertisement; for rewards for and descriptions of runaway slaves, written on papyri more than three thousand years ago, have been exhumed from the ruins of Thebes. The Greeks used another mode of giving publicity which is worthy of remark here. They used to affix to the statues of the infernal deities, in the temenos of their temples, curses inscribed on sheets of lead, by which they devoted to the vengeance of those gods the persons who had found or stolen certain things, or injured the advertisers in any other way.

As the names of the offenders were given in full in these singular inscriptions, they had the effect of making the grievances known to mortals as well [35] as immortals, and thus the advertisement was attained. The only difference between these and ordinary public notices was that the threat of punishment was held out instead of the offer of reward.

A compromise was endeavoured generally at the same time, the evil invoked being deprecated in case of restitution of the property. It is at present deposited in the British Museum, where the curious reader may inspect it in the second vase-room. Not so among the Greeks, who were so nice in point of oratorical power, and so offended by a vicious pronunciation, that they would not suffer even the public crier to proclaim their laws unless he was accompanied by a musician, who, in case of an inexact tone, might be ready to give him the proper pitch and expression.

But this would hardly be the case when the public crier was employed by private individuals. Thus, when the slave and the ass are led out for sale, the crier proclaims the price of each with a loud voice, joking at the same time to the best of his abilities, in order to keep the audience in good humour.

This latter idea has not been lost sight of in more modern days. Let us even make a present of him, if we can find any one who will not be loth to throw away hay on the brute. The same story furnishes further particulars regarding the ancient mode of crying.

The informer shall have a reward. The kiss of Venus shall be your pay; and if you bring him, not the bare kiss only, but, stranger, you shall have something [37] more. So far with the Greeks and their advertisements. Details grow more abundant when we enter upon the subject of advertising in Rome. The cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, buried in the midst of their sorrows and pleasures, their joys and cares, in the very midst of the turmoil of life and commerce, and discovered ages after exactly as they were on the morning of that ominous 24th of August A.

The walls in the most frequented parts are covered with notices of a different kind, painted in black or red. Their spelling is very indifferent, and the painters who busied themselves with this branch of the profession do not appear to have aimed at anything like artistic uniformity or high finish. Still these advertisements, hasty and transitory as they are, bear voluminous testimony as to the state of society, the wants and requirements, and the actual standard of public taste of the Romans in that age.

As might be expected, advertisements of plays and gladiators are common. Of these the public were acquainted in the following forms,—. Such inscriptions occur in various parts of Pompeii, sometimes written on smooth surfaces between pilasters denominated albua , at other times painted on the walls. Places of great resort were selected for preference, and thus it is that numerous advertisements are found under the portico of the baths at Pompeii, where persons waited for admission, and where notices of shows, exhibitions, or sales would be sure to attract the attention of the weary lounger.

Thus the keeper of a bathing-house near Bologna acquainted the public that—. MO RE. Superbus, a comparatively unknown man. Casuntius, the master of the latter, is supposed to be in the act of advising him to yield to the invincible retiarius. The other figure represents Aniketos Achilles, a great Samnite gladiator, who merited the title of invincible.

In the street of the Fullers in Pompeii occurs the following inscription, painted in red, over another which had been painted in black and whitewashed over,—. ALIF I. The hirer must apply to the slave of Cn. Alifius Nigidius, senior. Both the Greeks and the Romans had on their houses a piece of the wall whitened to receive inscriptions relative to their affairs.

Many examples of them are found in Pompeii, generally in very inferior writing and spelling. Sarinus Publii cauponatur.

Ut adires. This is to request you to enter. We are made acquainted with other Roman bills and advertisements by the works of the poets and dramatists. They also read their [42] works publicly, [13] an occupation in which they were much interrupted and annoyed by idlers and impertinent boys.

Another mode of advertising new works more resembled that of our own country. The Roman booksellers used to placard their shops with the titles of the new books they had for sale. Such was the shop of Atrectus, described by Martial—. There will be fights with wild animals, and an awning to keep off the sun. Sometimes, also, the bills of gladiators promise sparsiones , which consisted in certain sprinklings of water perfumed with saffron or other odours; and, as they produced what was called a nimbus, or cloud, the perfumes were probably dispersed over the audience in drops by means of pipes or spouts, or, perhaps, by some kind of rude engine.

When they were good enough to let to the higher classes they were called equestria as in the following advertisement. I n the ages which immediately succeeded the fall of the Roman Empire, and the western migration of the barbarian hordes, darkness and ignorance held paramount sway, education was at a terrible discount, and the arts of reading and writing were confined almost entirely to the monks and the superior clergy.

In fact, it was regarded as evidence of effeminacy for any knight or noble to be able to make marks on parchment or vellum, or to be able to decipher them when made. Newspapers were, of course, things undreamt of, but newsmen—itinerants who collected scraps of information and retailed them in the towns and market-places—were now and again to be found.

The travelling packman or pedlar was, however, the chief medium of intercommunication in the Middle Ages, and it is not hard to imagine how welcome his appearance must have been in those days, when a hundred miles constituted an immense and almost interminable journey.

We know how bad the roads were, and how difficult travelling was in comparatively modern days, but we can form very little idea of the obstacles which beset all attempts at the communication of one commercial centre with another in the early Middle Ages. Everybody being alike shrouded in the darkness of ignorance, it is safe to assume, therefore, that written advertisements were quite unknown, as few beyond those who had written them would have been able to understand them.

Nearly the whole of the laity, from the king to the villain or thrall, were equally illiterate, and once more the [44] public crier became the only medium for obtaining publicity; but from the simple mode in which all business was conducted his position was probably a sinecure. An occasional proclamation of peace or war, or a sale of slaves or plunder, was probably the only topic which gave him the opportunity of exercising his eloquence.

Public criers appear to have formed a well-organised body in France as early as the twelfth century; for by a charter of Louis VII. For the first time they blew the horn they were entitled to a penny, and the same for every time after, according to custom. These criers of wine were a French peculiarity, of which we find no parallel in the history of England.

They perambulated the streets of Paris in troops, each with a large wooden measure of wine in his hand, from which to make the passers-by taste the wine they proclaimed, a mode of advertising which would be very agreeable in the present day, but which would, we fancy, be rather too successful for the advertiser.

These wine-criers are mentioned by John de Garlando, a Norman writer, who was probably a contemporary of William the Conqueror. God is merciful! God is good and excellent! The public criers in France, at an early period, were formed into a corporation, and in obtained various statutes from Philip Augustus, some of which, relating to the criers of wine, are excessively curious. Thus it was ordained that—. On the Friday of the Adoration of the Cross they shall cry not at all.

Neither are they to cry on the day on which the king, the queen, or any of the children of the royal family happens to die. If anybody causes any such auction to be proclaimed by any other than the public crier, then the lord has a right by assize and custom to claim the property so cried as his own, and the crier shall be at the mercy of the lord.

And whoever causes anything to be cried by the appointed public crier in any other way than it ought to be cried, and in any other way than is done by the lord or his representative, the lord may claim the property as his own, and the crier who thus cries it shall be amenable for falsehood, and is at the mercy of the lord, who may take from him all he possesses. But if he [the lord] does not do that, then he shall not suffer any other punishment; and if he be charged, he must be believed on his oath.

In England criers appear to have been also a national institution at an early period. They were sworn to sell truly and well to the best of their power and ability. They proclaimed the cause of the condemnation of all criminals, and made proclamations of every kind, except as concerned matters ecclesiastical, which were exclusively the province of the archbishop. They also cried all kinds of goods. In London we find Edmund le Criour mentioned in the documents relating to the Guildhall as early as These horns were provided by the mayors of the different towns.

Possibly the triumph is the greater when the customer has been persuaded quite out of his or her original intentions. Most trades, in early times, were almost exclusively confined to certain streets, and as all the shops were alike unpretending, and open to the gaze—in fact, were stalls or booths—it behoved the shopkeeper to do something in order to attract customers.

There we see the shopmen standing at the door, trying to outbawl each other to gain the custom of the passers-by. The spicer or grocer [49] bids the Kentish countryman to come and buy some spice, pepper, or saffron. Free luncheons, though rare now, were commonly bestowed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on regular drinkers; and the practice of giving food to those who pay for drink is still current in many parts of the United States.

I have good bread, good wine, and good meat. Il y a de bon pain, de bon vin, et de bonne viande. Other modes of advertising, of a less obtrusive nature, were, however, in use at the same time; as in Rome, written handbills were affixed in public places; and almost as soon as the art of printing was discovered, it was applied to the purpose of multiplying advertisements of this kind. Their dimensions are five inches by seven, and their contents as follows:—.

Foreigners appear to have appreciated the boon of this kind of advertising equally rapidly, although, from the fugitive nature of such productions, copies of their posters are rarely to be found. The Parisian printers soon went a step further. Long before the invention of the typographic art, the University had compelled the booksellers to advertise in their shop windows any new manuscripts they might obtain.

But after the invention of printing they soon commenced to proclaim the wonderful cheapness of the works they produced. It did not strike them, however, that this might have been done effectually on a large scale, and they were content to extol the low price of the work in the book itself.

Such notices as the following are common in early books. Thielman Kerver, Jean Petit, and various other printers, give similar intelligence to the purchasers of their works. Sometimes they even resort to the process of having a book puffed on account of its cheapness by editors or scholars of known eminence, who address the public on behalf of the printer. Meanwhile, though the art of printing had become established, and was daily taking more and more work out of [53] the hands of scribes, writing continued to be almost the only advertising media for wellnigh two centuries longer.

They were posted in the most frequented parts of the towns, preferably near churches; and hence has survived the practice of attaching to church doors lists of voters and various other notifications, particularly in villages.

In the metropolis one of the places used for this purpose may probably have been London Stone. From the era of the Reformation to the Restoration, all sorts of disorderly conduct was practised in the old cathedral. A lengthy catalogue of improper customs and disgusting practices might be collected from the works of the period, and bills were stuck up in various parts to restrain the grossest abuses.

Such a busy haunt was, of course, the very best place for bills and advertisements to be posted. But the siquis door was not confined to notices of ecclesiastical matters; it was appropriated generally to the variety of applications that is now to be found in the columns of a newspaper or the books of a registry office.

Though no authentic specimens of the siquis remain, we are possessed of several imitations, as the old dramatists delighted in reproducing the inflated language of these documents.

If there be any gentleman that, for the accomplishing of his natural endowment, intertaynes a desire of learning the languages; especially [55] the nimble French, maiestik Spanish, courtly Italian, masculine Dutch, happily compounding Greek, mysticall Hebrew, and physicall Arabicke; or that is otherwise transported with the admirable knowledge of forraine policies, complimentall behaviour, naturall dispositions, or whatsoever else belongs to any people or country under heaven; he shall, to his abundant satisfaction, be made happy in his expectation and successe if he please to repair to the signe of the Globe.

Here are some of his compositions, which would certainly shine among the examples of the present day:—. If there be any lady or gentlewoman of good carriage that is desirous to entertain to her private uses a young, straight, and upright gentleman, of the age of five or six and twenty at the most; who can serve in the nature of a gentleman usher, and hath little legs of purpose, [19] and a black satin suit of his own to go before her in; which suit, for the more sweetening, now lies in lavender; [20] and can hide his face with her fan if need require, or sit in the cold at the stair foot for her, as well as another gentleman; let her subscribe her name and place, and diligent respect shall be given.

If this city, or the suburbs of the same, do afford any young gentleman of the first, second, or third head, more or less, whose friends are but lately deceased, and whose lands are but new come into his hands, that, to be as exactly qualified as the best of our ordinary gallants are, is affected to entertain the most gentlemanlike use of tobacco; as first to give it the most exquisite perfume; then to know all the delicate, sweet forms for the assumption of it; as also the rare corollary and practice of the Cuban ebolition, euripus and whiff, [21] which we shall receive or take in here at London, and evaporate at Uxbridge, or farther, if it please him.

The word siquis is of frequent occurrence in the old writers. A candidate for holy orders who has not been educated at the University, or has been absent some time from thence, is still obliged to have his intention proclaimed, by having a notice to that effect hung up in the church of the place where he has recently resided. If, after a certain time, no objection is made, a certificate of his siquis , signed by the churchwardens, is given to him to be presented to the bishop when he seeks ordination.

At the time when the siquis was the most common form [57] of advertisement, other methods were used in order to give publicity to certain events. There were the proclamations of the will of the King, and of the Lord Mayor, whose edicts were proclaimed by the common trumpeter.

The bookseller, as in ancient Rome, still advertised his new works by placards posted against his shop, or fixed in cleft sticks. This we gather from an epigram of Ben Jonson to his bookseller, in which he enjoins him rather to sell his works to Bucklersbury, to be used for wrappers and bags, than to force their sale by the usual means:—.

Announcements of shows were given in the manner still followed by the equestrian circus troops in provincial towns, viz. Thus notice of bearbaitings was given by the bears being led about the town, preceded by a flag and some noisy instruments. But first, boy, go, fetch me a bagpipe; we will walk the streets in triumph, and give the people notice of our sport. This was an old joke, which, more or less varied, occurs always under the print of the town crier.

Notwithstanding the immense development of advertising since the spread of newspapers, the services of the bellman are still used in most of the country towns of the United Kingdom, and even in London there are still bellmen and parish criers, though their offices would appear to be sinecures. Not much more than a century ago the burgh of Lanark was so poor that there was in it only one butcher, and even he dared never venture on killing a sheep till every part of the animal was ordered beforehand.

When he felt disposed to engage in such an enterprise, he usually prevailed upon the minister, the provost, and the members of the town council to take a joint each; but when shares were not subscribed for readily, the sheep received a respite. Sir Walter Scott, in one of his notes, gives a quaint specimen of vocal advertising.

In the old days of Scotland, when persons of property unless they happened to be nonjurors were as regular as their inferiors in attendance on parochial worship, there was a kind of etiquette in waiting till the patron, or acknowledged great man of the parish, should make his appearance.

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