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HelL p. TvcpAoTfpos a nra. IJa, Gr.❿

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It is also to be noted that an accumulation of enclitics, such as appears in the above example, does not actually occnr; this very example being a fiction of the grammarians who coined it fOl\’the purpose Arc. IupwfaeDhAftigkait, ISberappel. Tonoelitics are syntactically accented or rather retain their accent, and 80 are called ortIaotofle- a. When the 80nant which wss to receive the accent of the enc1itic is elided, ss: TaW\’ imv for TaVru imv.

A number of disyllabic prepositions are oecssionally put after their respective words. In studying the history of the Greek language, we find that ita gradual evolution has been determined b:r variou8 agencies chiefly internal cp. Some of these agencies, however, are of such a fundamental and general character aB to require an explanation here at the outset. B18II i. S4lo [lJ Obazaz iD Bekk. AttGlogg is the very frequent paychologioal phenomenon by which an item sound, accent, form, word, meaning, construction, ete.

Thus wio, P ok: ImYx-\’ to.. I Cor. I, 8ol1X n Luke 1, NT , a\”. Technically initial P is tI8fM. Bee Thus Fp\”,. Par the almClllt replar appearanoe of.

Before a conaonant, P-N uncultivated speech changea. I lour. BelL Stud. Spm,s i. In 8amothraoe the liquiclll A , aft dropped altoptber cp. Ai nvAAotIpcG. Between liquids and nasals, a consonant is sometimes phonopatbically developed epenthesis, to facilitate pronunciation. Before gutturals,. Thus l. So still in N CIA ill. I lIaoo. Tohn 6, RAnt I Cor. Before labials, If cha. In N the combination ,. The results of the two preceding rulea are applicable to Nalao. Note finally that, in the case of.

TOur TOIf , inatead of dropping their final 11\’ or tT, or accommodating it to the following initial conaonant, popular N speech very frequently inserts a protective or revective -f f. CGeorafllM Const. On the other hnnd, Fis found in archaic and dialectal Greek 3. Thus the 8I! Sometimes i was apparently blended with a dental into tT\’tT or TT.

The combination Pri. Preceded by 3 and sometimes by,, , i apPfUently became C App. AMtf lAM,. Initial F was apparently dropped. Iutenonantic j and Fwere apparently dropped. So too in P-N but Bee f. Even Biblical nouns Scripture names familiar to the masses, notwithstanding Christian piety, conform to this rule, inasmuch as a final consonant other than IT,.

Only in ctlltifXlted speech iB it retained. All the above remarks respecting the determination and qualification of gender are still substantially applicable to N. The only aigilal departure therefrom is that names of trees in -or, which in A were feminine, now very often appear as masculines cp. This change, however, goea, in many cases, back to P times:.

N 4 IWISp4por. P-N\” cp. GBatzidakia N 4 \’IIMot. The disorimiDation of sender by means of the Mdi1lfl of the Dominative singular must be l8se\”ed for the respective sectiona of the decleDlion Here suffice it to state broadly tbatM7.

Thia broad aDd general rule aaaumed. IJUggeetive buis wu alnady dorded by the ut declension which distinguished. O8oe staited, the prooeaa of this terminal dietinction received additional impetua in the fact that in the vd declension numerous feminines in Accordingly in N all mllllCulines end iD So far, then, the above proceaa has not materially deoted the gender, nohrithatanding the long history of the Greek laDggage.

The chanpa etleoted are, apart from oertain loceliame and dialectal peculiarities. They are the relNlt mainly of analogy and uaociation aIao diaaociation of meaDing. The article is substantially preserved in N 23S b. The various cases of a noun are formed by adding certain eMHtg8 or terminations to a fixed part called the stem or theme , of which the closing or final BOund is called the chafV. The stem appears in its genuine and full form by dropping the ending of the genitive case.

Accordingly the stem character of the 1st and 2nd declensions is always a sonant a, 0 , while that of the 3rd declension is mainly a consonant When a sonantic stem is succeeded by a terminal vowel, it undergoes a phonopathic change contraction , and 80 does not show its genuine character On the other hand, consonantal steIns generally show their true character. In N the lilt and 3rd declensions have been, to a large extent, fused into a single declension, the sinlfUlar of which substantially corresponds to the sinplar of the anclent lilt declension, and the plural to the plural of the ancient 3rd declension Rnli, rlna, TlnCl.

Thus, whenever the terminal BOnant of the nominative singular is retained throughout, the accent also remains in its place cp. CII, Tit. Geuitive and dative endings, if \’long\’ and accented, have the cireumJlex. Nominative, vocative, and accusative endings, if accented, have always the acute. Efldi\”ll\’ 01 tM Firlll Ikt:lenriora. Generally speaking, in maaculines terminal \”\’ is the sign of the nominative singular; in femininea, it is the sign of the genitive singular cp.

P-N Sif! Thus, if we look at the si\”fIVlm\’ of the above endings , we find that the preva. Accordingly the consonantal masculine vocative -Go the genitive feminine. This phenomenon signalized itself as early as A, but owing to the Atticistic and scholastic spirit of all P-B scribes , the assimilation of all terminal sonants appears full1 established only in M-N speech P-N Plural. In the plural a more atriking and fundamental chanse has taken place. Such an. Accordina\’ly -u met with general acceptance, and gradually supplanted -al.

Vita Chrya. Leo Gram. But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap\’peara complete in B-JL popular speech see IF. For the accuaative plural see Considering that the resultant common ending -er -ff is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f ripen X.

Aa oUrl.. Aiaa-ir \”, \’,tTtT-OI. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity. The ending. The ending \”\’I remains unchanged throughout the singular. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p in which case the -a is called pure , remains unchanged throughout thEl singular cp.

ID popular lpe4! Ea, -la, -ala have become oxytone,.. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 11, eapecially in Ionian speech whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa ,.. N femininee in That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension. Car -,w\”. GJti-oS\’ rroAt.

GJti-a, A. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with that of feminines , the only deviation being thatI. The nom. The gen. A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure IJMa, 7\’oii Xoxa. The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn\’l\’ teaches ll.

Hi The form a. Z \’oNrar, 1IGA. Aor, XtJIJpitt. Some stems ending in.. Qa and.. Qa to -ii, and.. All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex. V Epl\’1l D. O\’VICO\” sa8. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to. A and N, as: ;, z,. The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance Gp. GAor, IInxpfor, etc. Dual Sing. Mark that: 1 all endings begin with a. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably.!

Compare Sept. ON, etc. IN, nijuN. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine. For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters fvAa. In I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. In this manner, masculine.

In the! On this principle, however, they ought to write also I 7\’. Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many mostly polysyllabic and barytone masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension CP Rist.

Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion f. OD IHixa. Dental Stems \”\” 8, 6. The accusative singular ends in. AapNk Digitized by Google \”\”, c\”\”.. Ir,r-6t 0]. Br,r-t I\”cl cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ. BalJA\’W-f\’ A. Further examples: lu,J,l\’ A\’, If the character is 1\’, it is dropped before the ending -fA. Daal N. Plural N. AGm, traXW. Substantives in Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter.

Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often especially in ear-IYA contracted in the genitive aad a. For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, \”. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection ft\’. Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M that ill \”,.

SI t being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r f. Mark, however, 6 \’Y\’I\”7it nU -yew;; Corn. B 10a. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. Jo-tr V. Jour A. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of \” Feminines in 4 also « , Gen.

AV\”, etc. Ia, 8. KGI D. So further: \’AO\’rv. II58 a B. Kllhner-Bl i. In N re. Mp\” reS spear\’ , G. Mparor, etc. In N\” , Nvr 4 \’ship\’ , A. Jloeria ,,1f ch eoulCll3la. Sqp nS \’dream \’ , G. Bti1l nrri\’riD r ill the form. A I\’, D. Owl; PL. Koerla a64 dS \’A. Air, aWeS,. DVoOr and Dl\’ua:dr.

Aol , \”. In SohoL Az. X pci\”. Xlpa Crete, etc. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings. These a,re- -e. WaaRlI in what place? However, their retreat from actual speech goes back to G times, if we may judge by instances like: 8eft.

Acta 22, 5. Cer, Cp, Greek adjectives have either three endings, one for each gender; or two endings, one for both masc. For the P-N history of this rule see the following aectiODl as.

PorphyriOll v. In Greek, comparison is expreesed either by means of endings or by periphrasis. L By means of endings, and that: I.

So still in N,tbough \”nn-or is now retreating before ita periphraaia. Lees commonly by -fA\”JI, t. This haa become extinct in N. This is still partially preserved in N. The absolute superiatWe which denotes not the highest, but a tJe7Y high degree , is expressed either as above by means of \’-Ta1W, t. Gf stem ,.. ITdnnoor p41Cpdr p. It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh.

W1pft \”.. Some isolated forms, 88 : \’\”. Acta Xanth. The rarer endings -WJI,!. Beside \’x\’p6,. Of these adjectives.. Defective comparison. Some adjectives occur in the comparative and superlative, but not in the positive. These are In P-B we further meet with the following forms: \’- \’ up\’ am.

Preaently verba beginning with j- \’1-, fa-, \’-, lI-, , etc. Verbs beginning with a sona.. Some verbs beginning with , CO, 0-, take tbe temporal augment and at the same time prefix to it the initial vowel together with the succeeding consonant. This is called Attic reduplication by the ancient grammarians, obviously because in their time it we,s foreign to the living language cp. OIl cU. The P-N history of the augment and reduplication h..

The identity of augment and reduplication, or rather the absence of reduplication, in all verbs beginning with a sonant inevitably led to a olose connexion between the perfect and aeriat, two otherwise naturally associated tenses The same considerations apply to the numerous other cases of verba beginning with two consonanu.

It is true that an initial mute or aspirate admitted of reduplication under certain conditions -2 , but even in th limited caseI, common practice was frequently in1luenced by the preponderance of the other verbs, and dispensed with the reduplication cp.

CTTal are cited.. Attic by EuatathioB; cp. G Hatzidakil The gradual pl\”OO8llll of the phenomenon can be detected even in the elevated style of the writers of the time who, despite their Atticistio zeal, cannot help admitting into their compositions such forma.. With the disappearance of the consonantal reduplication. The latter telllle, then. So 5 m-. In the call8 of the perlect participle, since it did not of itself refer distinctly to the past, its reduplication even in the form of temporal augment appeared out of place and 80 was simply dropped.

M,,\’ 3. In Buch compound verbs the preposition may na. AVcu \”. I A few compound verbs augment and reduplicate both the verb and the preposition, as: a,-lxopGI \’endure\’ Imperl. Several verbs, though compounded with prepositions, are felt as simple and thus take the augment before the preposition cp.

Verbs compounded with prefixes other than prepositions, or derived from nouns of such a composition I ft\’. From the preceding IOOtiODB about compound verba , it will be seen that as long as they were felt to be distinctly compound, that is as long as each component was felt as a distinct and separate word.

When finally auch compounds came to be felt as simple verba they were treated as such, both augment and reduplication 80 far as the latter still survived being prefixed to the preposition, or, in case the prepositIon began with 8ODIIoDt, altogether dropped XtUmar-Blaa, fL Then s.

I Kacc. I, 44 flCfrP\”\’J»Tr. UnaTO Ar,. IIaCHq\”,; Mal. A number of verba were augmented even in.. This becomes more frequent in P-G, owing to the ignorance of the time, as: Sept. Mar1i 3. CGL 22S ii. Zeitachrirt i. St, 9 C Abgari , 14 kcrilJrt. GSpata 90 A.! GSpata 90 A. AftllfJf ubi Inr,c. GHataidakia p. In order to form and inftect a tense, we must know its ,.

This consists in one or more letters affixed directly to the stem. The character -If- of the aorist pueive appears \’lengthened\’ to -Irtill the indicative and infinitive. In addition to the thematic aonant, the subjunctive annexes a mood fJOtOe1.

All above remarks on the inhes, referring as they do to prehistoric antiquity, are naturally applicable to N alao, 10 far as the verbal forma airected atillBurvive. The Greek verb has separate person endings for the voices, as well as for the primary and secondary tenses. The above person endings are regularly appended to the infixes if.

W;o nAYOY But in three IOlitary CI. For P-N The subjunctive of the perfect and pluperfect active, in particular memo-passive, are formed mostly by way of circumlocution The 1lrst person aingalar of the active voice.. The aecond and third persons singular of the active voice,. If ad. So S4. So 86, 9. SPlo 0 \’-r,\”,Te\”l..

I, 4 I-rM\”1\’e NT Xatt. S, 4 \’E. Aota \’1\’ho. A I-rIalT. M1IG1\” ubi. IT Katt. I, 44 1Jcracau. Job 5. PL 34, CIG GCuriiua Anecd. Hat\”Pf4 C4a0l1 write C.. It la eertaI. Dce that the \’optative\’ should haft beaD piMt. The future passive has active endings The ending -8, is simply dropped in the present, as 11\’«; but in the aorist passive after the tense character. Of the two alternative endings active and middle A contaminatol7 form!

In considering the P-N\’hiatory of the imperative, we must diatinguiah between its second and third person. The endings -. SSterret1 i. AWestermann 10, In all other N dialects, however, the only endings known are -. Pontoa and Otranto, though iD. GKorosi i. The plural! AufijTf, xafijTl. The ending -l\’CU is peculiar to the perfect active and. The ending WW 7I\’G. But see App. Instead of -ftW, the.

Owing to ita simple and indeclinable chartllCter, the intinitiv8 shows no morphological viciasitudes lince.. Thil confusion, however, point. In the media-passive voice save in the. M\”as: 1I\’IIWp. Vita Epiph. GNTA bit. GBpata 64 OI m\”ll\’ AI-r\”. I, J]nt, etc.

Yerbs in -Go, continued from p. ICAn, IC. The only exception is ,aQ which still preserve. For other P chuge8 see Yerbs in -lw. The rule of contraction is that of , S. The conjugation table of verbs in -it\” is given in p. Monosyllabic stems contract only in combinations where the resultant, under normal conditions, wonld be -G-, as : wAI. In P-B Greek the a.

Great Louvre Pap. So alwa. The conjugation table ofverbs in -or. The rule that contracted verbs lengthen their character or r to 7h and 0 to III before a consonant , sutfers the following modifications : , I. So too N verbs in. Some verbs mostly liquid and sonantic preserve the short vowel, but insert in the future perfect and ut aorilt passive a.

These are commonly cp. N verb. This peculiarity; however, ill of ancient date, Sept. In T-N thia verb haa the form U- and preaervea -f- throagb. AfI a pao ItfItpov a ,.. So too iD N, excepting. M\’ hear\’ J. In dealing with the P history of contracted verbs. IriJA\’llla, T. On the other hand, the two contracted t. When critically sifted. This pr0ce88 is manifested here in two distinct but parallel forme, one in the resultant. In either case the question at iBaue was which of the competing resultant.

In the cue of 01 and ow, this was undoubtedly ow. The earliest traces of this Bimp1i1l. NT Katt. IS, a54p! Petri et l\’auli Aarciaat lb. Acta Tho. Acta Katt. D CVind. The followiDc oblervation is al80 iDstruotive: TheodOl. For this m88D8 thalIat the time of lreDaeua , \’Wcll. Glaa IAIod. Iso, ar IrOplJW..

Kac- S94 A. Koreover, as HatBidakis has omitted to explain the. Tbat thfs tense, or rather the future -\’40\’01 has contributed to atreDgthen the position of the contracted present ill admissible; but to atIlrm. For first other IIOriBt endinp, beaida -,0\’11, admit of a contn.

Then it ill rather abnormal that OIl. After verbal contraction had been limited to the two eJue. Aa a matter of fact, thill cIasa owing to the presence in it of the strongest IOnant a,.. The nat -de about vmms. For another IIimilar N 81rlBx An immediate consequence of the above proee88 f. The three stapa of the lIuoo. W IItJwn! AO\”thill clas!! Verbs in -nw poiut to a labial character: in particular ton.. This class of verbs Hill 8urviv in N. All above verba in. Only a few verba in Verba in -nw or -\”\”GI have, ever llince.

A time. BOuthern speech, as: clAAdIra. Conaequent17 aa a preaent ending, o Ia. In the conjugation of mu\’te verbs the same formative elements come into play as those in sonantic verbs. The only noteworthy departure is that in mute verbs the blending or the stem character with the tense \’character where there is any, involves certain phonetic changes.

Hence the following peculiarities must be remembered : In the present and imperfect where there is no fixed tense character 7 56 , mute verbs are inftected exactly like sonantic verbs In all other tenses the stem character coalesces with the tense character or, in the absence of the latter, with the succeeding terminal consonant and undergoes the appropriate phonopathic changes 16g Thus: G.

Interconaonantal \” i. Of these resultanta EQ\”r f\’f\’ 1Tf\’ atill hold good in N. Verbs in – lw of more than two syllables drop the future Q Digitized by Google This is called. In the NT writen the ordinary future is while the Attic form -w is rather rare and not a.

Their shorter stem shows itself by reducing -to.. See 29 ft. Their future active and middle is formed from the shorter stem by affixing to it the ending – ;W. OI , distribute\’. CIf, I, etc. CIf, E, ete. CIf, I, ete. CIf, f, etc. Ill\”\”\”,\”\”\” 01, OTO,etc. Several other verba in Aa expected, P Greek went further in this direction and soon brought about..

IdSapa, etc. How far P speech preeen\’ed the contracted future is a matter of speculation. Binoe its practioe, u shown in our texts, is mostly a point of mere accentuation, determined bI intuition, or rather by the tute of modern editol\’l. Indeed, when we bear in mind that the future indicative began as early u B-Q times to retreat partly before the prell8nt indicative and partly before the future [aorist] subjunctive ; that contraction in verba wu identified with the present tenee ; that the diJferenoe of the indicative and subjunctive future in this particular cue conei.

They may even. The oJlly criterion in the eircumstanoes would be the 1st and 2nd persona plural and the middle voioe, where there is a phonetic difrerenoe -J\”I\’,. Unfortunately our evidence of this nature is too meagre and fluctuating in unscholastio compositions like the NT writings, to 8NT8 aa a safe indication.!

The four verb. Pl No oonoluive evidenceiaaft\’orded by forms U1r. Lake 21, 12 ,.. Lake 43 ftfpafJo. Luke 11, 49 a:nd Acts 7, 34 ElL 30 10 dro8ept.

IS, 9; I Cor. Luke 12, 18aaBfAol. John 3,36; 14,17; I John 3. In the 2nd person singular of!. I yptltlN. In the followiDg three verba,. In the two following verba,. A distinguiahea between the lit and 2nd tenses: ut aor. The 2nd perfect and 2nd pluperfect active are formed from the verbal stem without tense character, and follow the inftection of the rat perfect and 1st pluperfect respectively.

In some caaea there is a ut and 2nd perfect and pluperfect with a difference of meaning: In pt aDd pt: ,, Verbs in -p. In these cases the thematic sonant is dispensed withhence they are sometimes termed athematic tItlrb8 cp. Another feature of verbs in -IM is that they show an amplified present stem. Other in1lectional peculiarities of the verbs in -IM are the following: I.

In some caaes, the primitive endings are resorted to: a. The subjunctive has the usual thematic sonant and ending. The present imperative active contracts the ending r of the 2nd peraon singular with the thematic vowel cp. The participle active annexes the terminal character -\”,and forms a sigmatic nominative masculine Verbs in -JU.

Mark however thata. The infinitive active accents the penult: 8cucvWcu,. P-N history of Verbs in-JU. Verbs in -lA\’ are peculiar to A and Atticistic Greek. A: 6,. Kilhner-BI ii. This was also to be expected in view of the disadvantages under which the conjugation in -,..

Qq,\’ appeared to be quite out of place. Plu;;b, Aelian, Lucian, and the rest, where forms in FKaelker \’3 f. M \’OI. It is true that the. Then their occurrence in present parlance rests on a mere fallacy. The infinitive active attachea the ending -POI, in the present, to the ahort atem; in tae 2nd.

In their conjugation, the verba. I\”t ru,. Mark however thatG. In the aubjunctive they accent the contracted ending: T. The compound fOrlllll follow the accentuation of the aimJ! The primary subjunctive of these verbs always, and the secondary subjunctive sometimes, follows the conjugation of barytones in. I\”\” a,. Of \’0 S. B C Si, Si-T. Ir loT. L, \’\’fJp. TIVB] nIoi-cw, -,ir, -«i, etc. CN cmatr. OreatLouvre Pap. Bermas Via. Acta Thad. Acta hdr. PfH1TlI-, I.

John 20, CLeemana Pap. UP; 73, 6 d. So :Ell. NT, etc. CIA iv. M , \’tfxeJTci. The remaining. A tense forms follow the conjugation of 80nantic barytone verbs, with the following deviations: a. The stem vowel remains short in several cases, as : 8fBop. The stem vowel is irregularly lengthened in the forms. Cp Digitized by Google The singular of the 1st aorist active of n9? Future lIt Aor. I\’fellll A writere commonly – ;. The intreneitiV8 perCect aubj.

Chr ot. NU, 2S2. L Stud. It does not occur in Biblical compositions and is extinct in N, while. A 4»fjoiJ\”\”, is still the universal term in colloquial N. I Future f7cro\”\”, \’aba. Whafs that? Hes changing into Simonides. I mean that now that he\’s old and off colour he\’d go to sea on a hurdle to earn a groat. Hiheh Pap. Richards C. Stobaeus AntJiologij : When Simonides was asked why at his advanced age he was so careful of his money, he repHed, \’ It is because I should rather leave money for enemies when I die than stand in need of friends while I Hve ; for I know too well how few friendships last.

By tliis he implies the possession of great riches, so as to be able to feed many retainers. By \’ the great Ceian \’ he means Simonides, who wrote victory-songs and dirges for the aforesaid great Thessalians. Life below VOL, According to Simonides the word is the image of tlie thing. Aristides On tlie E. Simonides gives harmful advice when he says we should play all our lives and never be entirely in earnest. Simplicins atZ loc.

Indeed, when Simonidcs of Ceos made an improper request of liim during the time of his command, he retorted that he would not be a good minister of state if he put favour before law, any more than Simonides would be a good poet if he sang out of tune. I believe that the truth is that Simonides, of whom tradition speaks not only as a delightful poet but in all respects a wise and learned man, despaired of the true answer because so many subtle definitions occurred to him that he could not decide among them.

But not a blow was struck, and the war came to nothing. For we are told that the lyric poet Simonides came up in the nick of time and reconciled the two kings.

Alexander of A] hrodisias on Ihe passage : These words will be clear to any reader who has been told what is meant by the Aoyo? This would seem to be characteristic of foreign birth and lack of educa- tion. Pindar Oliimpians : Skilled is the man who knoweth much by nature ; they that have but learnteven as a pair of crows, gluttonous in their wordiness, these chatter vain things against the divine bird of Zeus.

Scholiast on the passage : He hints at Bacchylides and Simonides, calling himself an eagle and his rlvals crows. Simonides often employs digression. Indeed he tells us himself that lie imitates the musical stvle of Pindar and Simonides and, generally, what is now called the ancient style.

Longinus the Rhetorician : Simonides and many after him have pointed out paths to remembrance, counselling us to compare images and localities in order to remember names and eventSj but there is nothing more in it than the concatenation and co- observation of the apparently new with what is similar to it.

Cicero 0? Plutarch Should Old Men Govern? Simonides won the chorus prize in his old age. At that spot the city was taken. Scholiast on Aristophanes JVasps [\’ mind you take up the catch properly\’]: It was an old custom for guests at table to continue where tlie first singer left ofF.

The guest w ho began held a sprig of bay or myrtle and sang a lyric of Simonides or Stesichorus as far as he chose, and then handed the sprig to another, making his choice of a successor with no regard to the oi\’der in which the guests were seated.

Athenaeus Doclors at Dinncr :. Suidas Lexicon : Palaephatus : An Fjgyptian, or according to some authorities, an Athenian ; gram- marian ; wrote Argumcnts or introductions to the works of Sinionides. Palatine Anthologij : The Garland of Meleager :. Catullus :. Dionysius of Hahcarnassus Criliquc of the Ancicnt JVritcrs : You should note in Simonides liis clioice of words and his nicety in combining them ; moreoverand here he surpasses even Pindarhe is remarkable for his expression of pity not by employing the grand style but by appealing to the emotions.

Quintilian Guidc to Oratorij [the Nine Lyric Poets] : Simonides, though in other respects not a command- ing figure, may be praised for his choice of exjires- sion and for a certain sweetness ; but his ehief excellence lies in his pathos ; indeed some critics LYRA GRAECA quidam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis auctoribus praeferant.

See also Heph. Hiero, Villois. KaKMS ovv prjiri. Kal yap Kal irapa Si. Ancl so tlie Colchian fleece ouglit not to be callcd vqlkos, and Sinioaitles is wrong in this. Simonides sometimes calls it white aiid somelinies purple. And indeed in Simonides\’ account the clothini; is tlie orize. U eVf! The story is given by Simonides in tlie Prayers. Oreitliyia was the daughter of Erechtheus whom tlie Northwind carried ofi\”from Attica to Tiirace, there to beget on her Zetes aad Calais, as Simonides tells in the Sca-Fijhf.

TreT r The Same Eclogues : For now desiring to call the wind in poetic wise, but being unable to utter poetic speech, I would fain call the wind according to the Ceian Muse. Kitrtnoi oi \’S. Miller Mvl. The acropolis was called the ilemnonium, and the Susians are known as Cissian, a title whicli Aeschyhis gives to tlie niother of Memnon ; moreover Memnon is said to liave been buried near Paltus in Syria, on the banks of tlie river Badas, as is tohl by Simonides in his Dithyramb Memnon inchided aniong the Dcliaca.

SaTov [which usually are applied to sheep or goats. UiTTanelov, Arist. TiTpdyu vos, Arist. Adam : Plat. Se kuI tovs 6eoi B : Pl. My praise and friendship is for all them that of themselves earn no disgrace : even Gods figlit not against necessity I am no faultfinder ; enough for me is he that is not good nor yet too exceeding wicked, that knoweth that Right whicli aideth cities, a sound man.

Him will I never blame. Koi fjir 5eu Ka. Xfirwv perh. Such burial neither shall Decay darken, nor Time the all-vanquisher bedim. U 2S9 VOL. Ai\’TLO ov Aristid. VliiK Soc. Compare Sinionides in tlie Dirges. Scholiast on Tlieocritus [\’ many in tlie liouse of Antiochus and king Aleuas\’] : Antiochus was tlie son of Ecliecratidas and Uyseris, as we Ivnow from Simonides.

Taixvvai compares Soph. Comjh 26 [tt. It is Danaii on the sea, bewailing her fate : When the wind came blowing upon the carven diest and the swaying sea bent her towards fear and tears that would not be stayed from her cheeks, she threw a loving arm round Perseus, saying, \’O babe, what woe is thine!

Teaj\’ icoi. TropcpvpiaKri Nietzsclie : mss -ea, ia. For if the dire were dire to thee, thou \’dst lend thy little ear to what I say. And what- soever of my prayer be overbold and wrong, do thou forgive it me. A and throngh which Comatas was fed by the bees Tlieocr. So long as water sball flow and tall trees grow green, sun rise and shine and moon give bght, rivers run and sea wash sbore, ever shall I abide upon tbis sore-lamentcd tonib and tell the passers-by that this is tlie grave of Rlidas.

AU these are subject to the Gods ; but a stone, even mortal hands may break it. This is the rede of a fool. AhIoK 2. An Seni reap. He that can devise all is a God, and there\’s nothing to be got among men without toil. Jp\’ 26, Agath. XIII may have been originally parts of Books ; for their order cf. Miller Mtl. Pro Iiiiag. It is or he is apparcntly famous. This poem comes from a Somi of ViHory of Simonides.

Crius was an Aeginetan wrestler. And neither was Glaucus hiniself ofFended at being praised at the expense of the Gods who are guardians of athletes, nor did those Gods punish either Glaucus or the poet for impiety. Far from it, both of them received honour and glory from all Greece, the one for his strength and the other for no poem that he wrote more than for this.

Tb Sf avfM popa7s iir\’ eaBXols- twv fxeauv yap rj avij. For it is really colourless [meaning an event]. Simonides includes both the victories iu his celebration of the victor. Shortly afterwards, having received a message that two young men wanted him urgently outside, Simonides rose from the table and went to the door, only to find nobody there. Tliat very moment Scopas \’ dining-chamber coUapsed, and lie and liis perished in tlie ruins.

De Discr. SvvdTOts c. But wlien lie oftered him sufScient pay, he took it and wrote : Hail, ye daughters of storm-footed steeds!

Aud yet they were also daughters of asses. J\’lrL Mor. Tzetzes Chiliads :. Rh, 3. Movaiov yap fjV lephv evTavda. Whereupon Boethus exclaimed that the place contributed to the stranger\’s bewilderment. For tliere was a chapel of the Muses there, where the spring rises, whicli is why they used this water for libations ; compare Simonides : 1 cf. Tro pT vacTi.

The captain of the ship was Pliereelus son of Amarsyas according to Simonides. Scholiast on Sophocles [\’ What is it you have left undone? For tiie scripture saitli \” Whosoever believetli on him shall not be put to shame. Disc, Ani. E: niss vvv : Wil. Ooiiv xopLr Wil. Sia yrjpas eh oIkov a pe9? Compare Simonides : When the babbling nightingales, the green-necked birds of the Spring Scholiast on Aristophanes Birds [\’What birds arethese\’ etc.

This appears to be directed against Simonides, who when beaten by Pindar in the contest, wrote abuse of the judge for condemning a good poem. And it is because in this he said : 1 cf. KoX l,ip. Simonides tries to indicate it tlius : A breeze comes stippHng the sea. Conv, 9. Rein : mss ra iroirifiaTa Koi Tro. According to Simonides, Etna decided between Hephaestus and Demeter when they quarrelled over the possession of the country.

And it wouhl appear that, as if it were a matter of painting, the poems themselves are like the colours, and the dances to which they belong like the outlines which the colours fill. And the poet who is thought to have done his best and most expressive work in the Hyporcheme or Dance-Song proves that the two arts of dancing and poetry stand in need of one another ; conipare : Come pursue tlie curving course of tlie tune, and imitate with foot a-whirl in the contest unapproach- able horse or Amjclean hound ; or this : And even as on the windy Dotian plain a hound doth fly to find death for a horned hind, and she turns the head upon her neck this, that, and eveiy way and the rest:.

Reinach, 3Id. JVeil y. Tifxriffeis E: other- wise supply eiKhs from an earlier clause \’ Kirchhoft\’, Herm. At any rate lie takes no shauie to hiniself to praise iiis own tlanee any niore than his own poetry ; conipare: And when I shall sing the bride, I know well hovv to mingle the light dance of the feet. G : Zon, Apoll. Ar Vesp. An Scni 1 rh ydp TToXf? Claudian Ldtcrs [to Probinus] : Fortune helps the brave is the maxim of the poet of Ceos ; and whithcr it leada, though j-ou were silent, I should not hesitate to go.

Poor fools they to thiuk sOj and not to know that the time of youth and life is but short for such as be mortal! VVherefore be thou wise in time, and fail not when the end is near to give thy soul freely of the best.

Tiffi 2,LfiU! JMllSUrus, cf. For they refuse their aid to lend Lord Bacchus\’ butcher-knight to mend. Some explain it thus. The festival being near, the axe had been sent to be repaired, and Simonides, who was then a lad, was sent off to the bhicksmitli\’s to fetcli it. For the \’father of the kid \’ is the bellows, the \’ fell fish \’ the \’ crab \’ or tongs, \’ the child of eve \’ sleep, and \’ Bacchus\’ butcher-knight \’ the axe.

There is another piece by Simonides which puzzles readers who do not know the storj\’ : Who would not be of cricket\’s prize the winner, To son of Panopeus shall carry dinner. Now it was arranged that any chorister who came late should pro- vide the jackass with a quart of barley. Tliis is what is referred to in the verses ; he who would not be winner of the crickefs prize means he who would not [learn to] sing,- the son of Panopeus means the jackass, and the dinner the quart of barley.

Such is the epitaph of the whole force ; of the Spartans in particular this : Stranger, go tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here in obedience to their word. And of the seer this : This is the tomb of the famous Megistias, shiin by the Medes beside the river Spercheius, the seer who well-knowing that his doom was nigh, would not forsake the leaders of Sparta. The epitaphs aud pillars, with the exception of the epitaph of the seer, were accorded them hy the Amphictyons.

The epitaph of the seer Megistias was put up by Simonides the son of Leoprepes because of the friendship he bore him. Pah 7. AewviSTfV rhv \’Zirapna.

The Same Simonides on those who died with Leonidas the Spartan : Famous are they this eartli doth covfer, slain here with thee, Leonidas king of spacious Lacedaemon, when they fought and abode the strength of many and many an arrow and swift-footed horse and man of Media.

For I prefer the witness not of Herodotus but of theif tomb and of Sinionides, who wrote the following epitaph on the Corinthians who were buried at Salamis : Once, O stranger, we hved in the well-watered citadel of Corinth, but now we dwell in Ajax\’ isle of Salamis. AecoviSov -ntcrdvTas but see opp. B-E, cf. Hence both tlie poet Simonides. Tifxapxos \’ A? By tlie same Siinonides : When Timomachus was breathing forth his precious youth in his father\’s arms, he cried \’ Never will you cease to long, O son of Timenor, for the valour or the virtue of your dear son.

Why dost thou grudge the souls of men their sojourn with lovely youth. Simias, cf. Bechtel Uist. Same : Simonides : an liexameter followed by a penta- nieter, two trimeters, and an hexameter : Here Hes Dandes of Argos, tlie runner of the single course, after glorifying the horse-breeding land of his birth by two victories at Olympia, three at Delphi, two at the Isthmus, fifteen at Nemea, and others well-nigh past counting. Xepi-rjTaSas Inscr.

Hal, 9. The ghost of the buried man now appeared to Simonides aud urged him not to set sail. Wliereupon he put over the grave the following lines : This is he that saved the life of Simonides of Ceos, he who though dead yet showed his gratitude to the living. The inscription runs thus : When the host of the Mede was destroyed, the sons of Athens defeated tribes of all manner of men from Asia in a fight upon this sea, and dedicated these tokens unto the Virgin Artemis.

Chiimaeleorrs interpretation of T. Ac cordingly when CJreece was invaded by the 1\’ersian, the Corinthian courtesans, if we may believe Theoponipus and the 7th Book of Timaeus, went to Aphrodite\’s temple and prayed for the salvatioii of Greece. And thus it was that when the Corinthians dedicated to tlie loddess the tablet which is still extant and inscribed on it the name of each of the courtesaiis who had niade that intercession and after- wards attended the saerifice, the foUowing inscription was dedicated along with it by Simonides : \’ These \’ etc.

This inscription was now at once erased l y tlie Spartans, who engraved upon the olfering the names of all the cities which had set it up after their combined defeat of the Barbarian. HdL Mal. Uavaavias, Paroem. Honiolle Mil. Weil, finding together at Delphi four tripod- bases, two larger A and B bearing dedicatory inscriptions of Gelo and [Hiero? For these men first destroyed many of the Medes ashore and then took a hundred ships of the Phoenicians on the sea, ships and shipmen too ; and loud were Asia\’s laments when slie found herself smitten with both of their mightily-warring hands.

Asoldier\’soffering toZeus ; Sinionirles: Rest so, thou fine long ash, against the tall pillar, abiding ever sacred to Zeus the Diviner ; for thy bronze point is grown old and thou tliyself art worn out with rauch wielding in dreadful war. These are not the words of another man speaking of Simonides, but his own, and moreover he adds the second line to show that it is not a boast of his youthful prime. An Seni 3, Val.

Antigenes below cf. Harmodius-song 1 1 vol. Pind P. TpoiBov Sehneider from Thuc. Casmyhis, Euagoras, Rhodes, boxing at Pytho. S roi Kvrcuv : B SUgg. KvKicv S\’ eaTrero K. E, cf. Thus it is owing to the peculiar circumstances of the athlete\’s birtli tliat tlio poet thus addresses the Goddess. Aristodemus\’ view was based on an Inscription of Simonides. Of tiie Hyperboreans who live for a thousand j\’ears lie gives the same account as Simonides, Pindar, andother mythologers.

According to Simonides, Talos, tlie man that Hepliaestus made with his hands, took the Sardinians, wlio refused to carry him over to Minos, and leapt down with them into tlie fire, as he well might do being made of bronze, and there hugged them to his breast and slew them all grinning upon him.

B, cf. Se or 2. But it is im- practicable to quote everj\’ case in point. Going forth to seek liis daughter, Euenus came to the river Lj\’cormas in Aetoha and there sank down ; whence the Lycormas came to be known as tlie Euenus. But nigh to Arent; Idas was met by ApoUo, who laid hokl on Marpessa, whereat Idas stretched bow and began to fight him for his bride. Tlien became Zeus judge between them, and bade Marpessa choose her man ; when for fear Apollo woukl kave her when she grew okl, she chose Idas.

Such is Simonides\’ elaboration of the story. Life of Lycurgus : Nevertheless, although History is at a loss, we will try to base our account of the inan upon such of the recorded facts as are least controverted or have the support of the best authorities.

This is contrary to most of tlie authorities, etc. The ethnic adjective is Acanthius \’Acanthian,\’ whence the proverb \’Acanthian cricket\’ of taciturn people ; for according to Simonides the crickets of that countrj- do not chirp.

The handle is called the \’ bond \’ or binding by Simonides. He was at enmity with the lyric poet Simonides, and also with the Athenian Themistocles, of whom he composed a censure in the form of a song. He wrote among other things a comedy directed against the same Themistocles and the lyrist Simonides. Let us not tlierefore surpass him, nor equal the miserable Timocreon, but let us know how to speak well of things, etc.

SchoHast on the passage : According to some authorities Tiniocreon was a lyric poet who wrote lampoons in iambic verse, while others sav that he was a bad man who, when convicted by the Athenians, went about saying, \’ Fm not their only victim ; there\’s Pericles. After Themistocles\’ flight and condemnation Timocreon gives far more of a loose to his invective in the song which begins : Make, Muse, this song a bye-word in Greece, as it is meet and just it should be.

Timocreon is said to have been banished for showing Persian sympathies, and Themistocles to have participated in the adveise ballot. And so, when Themistocles was accused of the same oflfence, Timocreon composed upon him these lines : So it is not only Timocreon who takes oaths to help the Medes ; it seems there\’s other scoundrels. Fm not the only curtail ; theres other foxes hke me. This agaiu is juoted by Tiniocreon to illustrate how wrong-doers conie eventually by their deserts.

It seenis that at the end of the Adonis-rites, after the honouring of Adouis by Aphrodite, the Cyprians threw into his funeral pyre some live doves, which flew awaj\’ only to fall into another pyre and perish after all. There was a time wlieu the Milesians were doughty men. For you it is that are tlie eause of all the evil of the world.

E -Bgk. Adrastus: 86; Peripatetic philoso- pher; a. Agatlion : ; WTiter of tragedy ; B. Alcaeus : 14, 26, 64, , , , , , , , , , , , ; lyric poet; B. Alciphron : ; WTiter of fictitious letters; a. Alexander of Aetolia : 48, , ; poet; B. Alexander of Aphrodisias : ; Peripatetic philosopher; a. Ammianus Marcellinus : 24, ; historian; a. Anacreon : 20, 64, 78, 82, 84, tr.

Anacreontea: , , , ; a collection of short poems suitable for singing, written by various hands, mostly late, in imitation of Anacreon Anaxagoras : ; philosophcr; B. Antiphanes : 50 ; writer of comcdy ; B. Antiphon : ; Attic orator ; B. Antoninus Liberalis : ; mytholo- gist; A. Anyte : ; a poetess, author of \’ epigrams \” ; B. Apion : ; grammarian; a. ApollodOrus : 44, 62, ; chronolo ger, grammarian, mvtholo gist ; B. ApoIIonius son of Archebius , , , , ; gram- marianand lexicographer, a.

Apollophanes : 96 ; writer of comedy; B. Archilochus : 14, , 62, 68, , ; elegiac and iambic poet ; B. Arlon : 4, , ; lyric poct ; B. Aristarchus : 49, 68, 72, , , , ; grammarian ; B. Aristeas : 96 ; WTiter of comedy ; prob. Aristides: 44, 2. Aristodemus son of Menecratcs : ; B. Ariston : ; Peripatetic philoso- pher; B. Aristophanes [Ar. Aristoxenus : 56, , G; writer on music ; B.

Arsenius : , , , , , , , , , , , ; son of Apostolius; coni- piler of a collection of proverbs andsayings; A. Athenaeus fAth. Bacchvlides : 64, 74, 99, , , ,; IjTicpoet; B. Bel-lefs AnecdOta: , , , , , , ; a collectimi of previously unedited Grcek works, publishcd Boissonade\’s Anecdula Graeca Nova : ; Extracts from Greek MSS preserved at Paris publishcd Caesius Bassus : ,; Eoman metrician of uncertain date Callimachus: , , , ; poet; B. Callistratus, pupil of Aristophancs of Byz.

Catullus : ; E. Chamaeleon : 85, , , , , , , , ; Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian; B. C Choeroboscus, Georgius : 74, , , , , , , ; grammarian ; a. C ; the fragmcntary work On Nega- tires is perh. Claudian : ; Iloman poct; A. Cranier\’s AnecdOta O. Crinagoras : ; epigrammatist ; A. Critias, friend of Anacreon : , ; descendant of tlie above ; B. Critias son of Callaesclirus : ; orator and poet; one of tlie \’ Thirty Tyrants \’ ; descendant of the above ; B.

Crobylus : ; also linown as Hegesippus ; an Athenian ora- tor; c. Cruquius : ; editor of Horace; A. Cyrillus : ; of Alexandria ; author of a glossary; a. Deinolochus : 96 ; writer of comcdy ; B. Demetrius : 18, 84, ; rhetori- cian; a. Demetrius of Scepsis : ; gram- marian; B. DemosthCnes : , , ; the great Athenian orator and statesman; B. Didymus : ,; grammarian; 30 B.

Dio Chrysostom: 27, 30, , , , ; rhetoriciau ; A. Diogenes Laertius [Diog. Dionysius Periegetes : , ; geographer; B. Dionysius of Thrace : 72, , , , ; grammarian ; B. Echembrotus : 2 Ennius : ; Roman poct ; B.

Epicharmus : 96, , ; writer of comedy; B. Epiphanius : 77; Christian writer; A. Erinna : ; a poetess of doubtful date Erotian : ; lexicographer ; a. Florentivum and Et. Eudoxus : ; astronomer; B. Euius : 8 ; flute-player B. Eumelus : , ; epic and lyric poet; B. Eupolis : ; writer of eomedy ; B. Euripides : 20, 31, 38, 43, , 50, , 58, 60, 88, , , , , , , , , , , ; writer of tragedy; B. Eusebius : , 78, , , ; clironologer [mostly survivcs only in Jerome\’s Latin version and the Armenian trans- lation] ; a.

CnCsippus : ; an erotic lyric poet; B. Harpocration : 48, , ; gram- marian; a. Helianax : 22 Heliodorus : , , ; metri cian; 30 B. Hephaestion : , , 6, , , , , , , , , , ; metrician; A. Heracleitus : ; grammarian ; A. Hermesianax : , ; poet ; B. Hermogenes : 28, , ; rheto- rician; a. Herodian [Hdn. Hesiod : 4, 16, 28, 34, 45, , 72, , , , , , ; epic poct ; B. Hesychius : 10, 58, , 87, 10, , , , , 1. Hunt at Hiboli in Esvpt ; published in Himerius : 18, 64, 78, , , , , , , , , ; rhetorician ; a.

Hippocrates : 92, ; phj-sician ; B. Hipponax : 4, , ; WTiter of lampoons in iambic verse; B. Homer: , 22, , 32, 36, , , 62, , 94, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ; see also Iliad, Odyssey, Eustathius, Tzetzes ; roet ; l!. Homeric Hymns : 63 ; a collection of hymns to tlie Gods by various hands ; B. Horace : 26, 42, , , , , , , , , ; Roman poet; 25 B. Iriarte\’s lieg. Johannes Cliarax : 1 65 ; gram- marian; a. Libanius : , ; rhetorician ; A. Longinus, Cassius : ; rhetori- cian; a. Lucian : 20, 30, 34, 73, , , , , , ; rhetorician and satirist; A.

Lycurgus : ,; Atticorator; B. Lysias : ; Attic orator; B. Macarius : 30 ; compiler of Greek proverbs; A. Macedonius : ; epigrammatist ; A.

Megastheues : ; geographer ; B. Mclampus : 2,6; singer to the lyre lyric poet? Menander : , ; vritcr of comedy; B. Menander : ; rlietorician ; a. Mnasalcas : ; epigrammatist ; B. Mocro : ; poetcss ; B. Myrtis : Natalis Comes : ; mythogra- pher; a. Nepos, Cornelius : ; Roman historian ; 60 B. Nicander : ,; poet;B. Nicephorus : ; Christian histor- ian; a. Orion : , , ; lexicogra- phcr; A.

Hunt at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt iii , still in course of publi- cation Palaephatus : ; mythographcr; B. Palatine Antholoyy [A. Inscriptions and riuasi- inscriptions, cmbodying the carlicr corapilations of Mcle- ager and othcrs, made by Constaiitine Ccphalas about A. Piinyassis the yoiingcr : 32 ; philosophcr; B. Parian Chronicle : 20, 23, , , ; an inscribed stoiic, now at Oxford, giving a summary of Greek history down to B. Paroemiofjraphi Jraeci: , , , , , , , , , ; the CoIIection of tlie proverb-collcctions of Zciiobius and othcrs publishcd by von Lcutsch and Schneidewin iii ; sce aho O.

Crusius Ana- lecta Critica ad Paroem. Persius : Romanpoet; a. Pherecrates : ; writer of comedy ; B. Phereeydes of Leros or Athens : ; historian; B.

Philemon : , ; lexicogra- pher; a. Philo : ; Jewish philosopher; A. Philostratus \” the Athenian \’ : 44, , ; biographcr; A. Phlegon of Tralles : ; chronolo- ger; A. Photius : 20, 49, , 87, , , , , , , , ; lcxicographer, conipiler of chrestoniathies ; a. Pindar: 4, 9, 18, , 31, , 50, 54, 62, 68, 76, 84, 94, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ; lyric poet ; B.

Pliny \’ the Elder \’ : 18, 24, 69, ,; encyelopedist ; a. Porphyrius Porphyry : 98, ; Kco-Platonist philosopher ; a. PraxOla : ; lyric poetess; B. Priscian : , , ; Eoman grammarian ; a. Ptolemaeus son of Hephaestion : grammarian ; 70, ; a.

Seneca tiie younger : ; philosopher; A. Simonides : , 26, , 54, 60, 64, 84, 88, 96, , , , , , , , ff. Sophocles : 28, 48, 93, 96, , , 1. Sozomen Sozomenus : ; eccle- siastical historian ; a. Stobaeus : 60, , , , , , , , , , , , , , compiler of chrestomathies ; A.

Strabo : 9, 32, 56, 64, 74, 94, , , , , , , , , , , ; geograplier A. Suidas: , 20, , 43, 49, 51, 78, , 96, , , , , , , , Telestes : ; dithyrambic poet ; B. Tenarus Tacnarus? Terpander: , 14, 68; lyric poet; B. Tlialetas or Thales : , 14; lyric poet ; B.

Themistius : ; philosopher and rhetorician; a. Theodorus the Metochite : ; grammarian and historian ; a. Theopompus : , ; historian ; B. Thomas Magister : ; grara- marian; A. Thucydides : , , , , ; historian; B. Timaeus : 76, , ; historian; B. Timocreon : , , , fT. Tiniotheiis : 63; lyric poet; B. Tynnichus : Tyrtacus : ; clegiac poet; B. Victorinus : see Marius Victorinus Villoison\’s Anecdota Graeca; , ; a collection of hitherto unedited Greek worlcs or parts ol works preserved in the libraries of Paris aud Vcnice; publishcd in WiUielm in Jahresberichte ost.

Xenodiimus : 6 ; Ivric poet ; B. Xenophanes : , ; clcgiac poet and Eleatic philosopher; 53 B. Xenophon: , , , ; historian; B. Zenobius : 32, , , , , ; rhctorician; a. ZoTlus : ; rhetorician ; B. Zonaras : 44, 49, , , , , , , ; A. Academy, Academe, Aeaflemeia : ; a public garden at Atliens walled by Hipparchus and adorned witii grovcs and fountains by Cimon ; here Plato taught Acaminti? Adeimantus son of O. Greece Agamemnon : 12, 40, 54, , ; king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks before Troy Agatharchus : ; an Olympian victor of this name, of Corcyra, is mentioned by Dionysiu3 of Halicarnassus 4.

Amalthea : ; thc goat which sucklcd the infant Zcus ; one of hcr horns was given by the God to his nurses the daughters of the Crctan king Melisseus, making it a \’ horn of plcnty \’ cornucopia which could be fllled at the wish of the possessor Amarsyas : Amphiaraiis : 32, 46 ; son of Oicles ; onc of the \’ Seven against Thebcs \’ AwpJiictyoths : ; mcmbers of the comicils of various Grcek fcderations, particularly that of the Thessalians, Boeotians, Dorians, lonians, Dclphians, and others which mct annually at Anthela ncar Thermopylae and at Dclphi Amphilochus : 46 ; son of Amphi- araiis ; a mcmber of the second expcdition against Thcbcs Amphimachus : ; a leader of the Carians before Troy Amphlon : Amphiphanes : 10 Amyclae : ; a town of Laconia Amyclas : Amyntor : Anaurus : ; a river of Magncsia in Thessaly on which stood lolcus Auaxagoras : ; an Aeginetan sculptor who flourished about B.

Anaxandrides : Anaxilas Anaxilaiis : ; dcspot of Rhegium B. Argonauts : ; the heroes who sailed in the Argo under Jason on tlie flrst great maritime expedition to Colchis on the E. Artemon : Asclepius Aesculapius : 44; a great pliysician ; after Homer, the God of healing Asia : , Asopus : ; the name of three rivers of Greece Asteris : Astyanax : 48 ; thc little son of Hector and Andromachfe Astydameia : Astylus of Crotona : Athamas : ; grandson of Aeolus; he led a colony of Minyans to Teos Athena in Homer, Athenfe : 46, 64, , , , , AthenodOrus : ; a Stoic philoso- pher; friend of Augustus Alhens : 20, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Atlantic Sea : 36 Atlas: ,; leader of the Titans; condemned, on their defeat, to support the sky Atrax : Atreidac : 46, ; Agamemnon and Menelaiis thc sons of Atrens : , ; son of Pelops, and grandson of Tantalus; a lamb with a golden fleece, given him by Hcrmes, waa stolcn by his brother Thyestes GENERAL INDEX Augiistus : , ; Roman Emperor; 27 b.

Pentelicus in Attica Brotachus : Bryson : Byzantium : ; the Greek city afterwards known as Con- stantinople Cadmus : 92 ; mythical king of Thebes ; the ref. Camilla : : a huntress who fought with Turnus against Aeneas Capaneus : 44 ; onc of the \’ Seven against Thebcs \’ ; slain by the thunderbolt of Zeus while scaling the walls of the city Caria : , , , , ; a district of W. Asia Minor inhabited by a non-HeUenic race Carthaea : , ;. Aegean Cephallenia : 2, 6; a large island off the W.

Aegean, one of the cliief seats of the worship of Apollo Delphi : 10, , , , , , , , , , ; a city of Phocis in central Greece ; seat of tlie oracle of the Pythian Apollo Demarete : , Derafter : , Demetrias : Demctrius : Deraocles : 76 Democritus : ; Kasian coni- mander in the invasion of Xerxes Hdt.

Dionysius \’ tlie Younger \’ : 76; despot of Syracuse B. Dionysius of Coloplion : ; a famous painter who flourished about B. Eehidna : ; a serpent-maiden, daugliter of Tartarus and Earth, who became by Typhon mother of tlie Sphinx, Cer- berus, Scylla, the Gorgon, the Hydra, and other monsters E jypt : 32, 62 Eidothea : 54 ; a daughter of Proteus EUeithuia Ilithyia : 40, ; God- dess of birth Elara : ; daughter of Orcho- menus or of Minyas Electra : 12 Elis : 56, 94, ; a district in the N.

Latmus In Caria, so that he might always remain young and beautiful Enetian: ; the Eneti Vene- tians? Asia Minor Enyalius : , ; a War-God, in Homer identitied with Ares, but later regarded as distinct Epameinondas : 10 ; the great Theban general and statesman, who having defeated the Spartans re-founded Messen6 in B. Epeius : 46, ; in Homer the builder of tlie Wooden Horse and a gallant warrior on the side of the Jreeks before Troy ; later tradition made him a coward and gave him an inferior place among thc heroes Ephesus : ; one of the twelve lonian citics of Lydia Ephyra : , ; ancient name of Corinth, identined with Ephyra daughter of Ocean or of Epimetheus Epidaurus : , ; a town on the E.

Glaucus : Glaucus : ; son of Sisyphus founder of Corinth Glaucus of Carystus called by Quintihan Glaucon : , ; a famous boxer Gorgias : 98 ; a youth beloved by Ibycus Gorgippus : Gorgo : Gorgophone : 62 GortjTi : Graces: 50, 88, , ; spirits of beauty and excellence and liandmaidens of the Jluses Greece : 20, , , , , , , , , , Greel-s: 2, , , , , , Gyaros w Gyara : ; an islet of the mid-Aegean, used as a place of banishment under the Roman Empire Gyrton: Harmodius and Aristogeiton : , ; murdercrs in B.

Himera : 12, , 22, 48, 64, 78, ; a Greelc citv of Sicily Hipparchus : , , , ; brother of Hippias see below ; murdered by Harmodius and Aristogeiton in Hippias : ; son of Pcisistratus and despot of Athens B. Hippolytfe sister of Jason : Hippolyte queen of the Amazons : ; slain and despoiled of her girdle by Hcracles Hippolytus : 44 ; son of Theseus by the quecn of tlie Amazons Hipponicus Ammon : Hipponlcus son of Struthon : Hipponous : Histiaeus : 12 ; despot of Miletus ; \’ the revolfc of H.

Leon : ; perhaps the Troeze- nian captured and sacrificed by the Persians before tlie battle of Artemisium Hdt. Lesbos: 64, 74, , , ; a large island of tlie E. Aegean Lethaeus : ; a small tributary of the Maeander Leto Latona : , , ; mother of Apollo and Artemis Leucas : 56, ; the name of several White Clifls through- out Greece, particularly of that of the island so called off the W. Asia Miuor Lycomids : ; an Athenian fam- ily in whom the priesthood of Bemeter was hcrcditary Lycormas : Lycurgus king of the Edones in Thrace : 68 ; persccutor of Dionysus Lycurgus son of Pronax ; brolher of the wife of Adrastus ; one of the \’ Scven against Thebes \’ Lycurgus the legislator : , the great lawgiver of Sparta ; 8th cent.

Lydia : , , ; the middle district of W. Lysander : Lysimachus : Macar : 74 ; son of Aeolus and founder of the Grcek colony in Lesbos Macedon : , ; the district N. Marsyas : 10, ; a mytliical flute-player, sometimes con- fused with Silenus which see Mataurus, Matauria : 18, 22 Medea : , ; see Jason Medes : , , , , , ; see Persians Media : 94, ; the okler Greek name of Persia, continuing in use after the overthrow of the Median Empire by Cyrus in B.

Mediisa : 48 ; a daughter of Priam, not to be confused witli Medusa the Gorgon Jlegacles : Megalopolis : 20 ; the city of Arcadia founded by Epa- meinondas in B.

Megara : 63 ; daughter of Creon king of Thebes, and wife of Heracles Megara : , , , ; a famous city of the E. Methyrana : 4 ; a town of Lesbos Metion : Micon : ; an Athenian painter who flourished about B. Midas : ; the name of a legend- ary king or kings of Phrygia Midean : ; of Midca, an ancient city of he Peloponnese, birth- place of Alcmena mother of Heraclcs Miletus : , ; a city of lonia, which in the 6th ccnt.

Miltiadcs: ; the Athenian geii- eral who defcated the Pcrsiaiis at Marathon Minos : ; king of Crete c. Minotaur: ; a monster half- man half-bull said to be kcpt by Minos in the Labyriiith and fcd with a yearly tribute of youths and maidens sciit from Athens; he was killed by Theseus GENERAL INDEX ilinyas : 60 ; ancestral hero of the ilinyans 3Iolio iids : ; twin sons of Actor or Poseidon by MoUonfe: Molossian : ; the Molossi were a tribe inhabiting part of Epirus Moluris : ; a rock on the coast near Megara, from which Ino threw herself into the sea 3Ioon : 68 Mopsiiim : Miisaeus : ; an early poet, reputed author of a coUection of oracles whicli were used in 6th-century Athens like the SibyllLne Books Muse : 50, , 88, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Mycalfe: , , ; a moun- tain and promontory of Lydia, near which the Persians were defeated by the Greeka in B.

Mycenae : 54, ; an ancient city of the Peloponnese Myrto : ; according to some authorities the mother of Pindar MjTtus : ; an island near Euboea Mysia : ; a district in tlie N. Orpheus : 14, 90, ; the early Thracian poet and musician Ortygia : 94 ; part of Syracuse, containing the fountain of Arethusa Ortygia in Chalcis : Ossa : , ; a mountain of Thessaly Palamedes : 52 ; according to authorities later than Homer, a Greeli warrior before Troy, credited witli the iuvention, among other useful things, of the alphabet Pallantium : 22, 36 ; an ancient town of Arcadia PaUas : , ; epithet of Athena, patrou-Goddess of Athens Paltiis: Pan : ; the Arcadian nature- God who, previously neglected by them, promised the Athen- ians his aid before the battle of Marathon and thereafter was worshipped on the Acro- poUs Hdt.

C, when he was starved to death iii prison for intriguiiii,\’ with tiie Pcrsians Peirithoiis : 40 ; liing of the Lapitlis and fricnd of Theseus Peisistratus : , , ; despot of Athens vvith intervals of exile B.


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