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The Soyuz launch vehicle can inject a payload directly into Geo-Synchronous equatorial. While the injection orbit for a single launch on Soyuz can be optimized with a higher. The typical Soyuz mission includes a three stage sub-orbital ascent and two Fregat burns. The earth observation, meteorological and scientific satellites will benefit of the Soyuz.
These data are to be considered for trade-off studies and require flight safety approval to. A typical Soyuz mission includes the three stages sub-orbital ascent and two or three. Specific mission profiles for elliptical orbits can be analyzed on a mission-peculiar basis.
For more accurate data, users should contact Arianespace for a performance estimate. For accurate data,. The accuracy of the four-stage Soyuz is determined mainly by the performance of the. Mission-specific injection accuracy will be calculated as part of the.
Mission duration from lift-off until separation of the spacecraft on the final orbit depends. This allows for the receipt of near-real-time information. The Soyuz LV can be launched any day of the year, any time of the day respecting the. In case of shared dual launch, Arianespace will taken into account the launch windows. After injection into orbit, the launch vehicle Attitude Control System is able to orient the.
For other specific satellite pointing, the Customer should contact Arianespace. The following values cover Soyuz compatible spacecrafts as long as their balancing. For each mission, Arianespace will verify that the distances between orbiting bodies are.
For this analysis, the Customer has to provide Arianespace with its orbit and attitude. The Soyuz LV is also able to perform multiple separations with mission peculiar payload.
During the preparation for launch at the CSG and then during the flight, the spacecraft is. The following sections present the environment for the two configurations Soyuz a. It is further noted that the introduction of the RD engine on the. Soyuz b configuration is not expected to measurably affect either the quasi-static. During flight, the spacecraft is subjected to static and dynamic loads. Such excitations may. Figure 3. The highest longitudinal acceleration occurs just before the first-stage cutoff.
Sinusoidal excitations affect the LV during its powered flight mainly the atmospheric flight ,. The envelope of the sinusoidal or sine-equivalent vibration levels at the spacecraft base. Maximum excitation levels are obtained. Note: 1 – Changes of the Power Spectral Density in frequency sub-ranges is linear, when a.
Apart from liftoff and transonic flight,. The envelope spectrum of the noise induced inside the fairing during flight is shown in Table. It corresponds to a space-averaged level within the volume allocated to the spacecraft. The spacecraft is subject to shock primarily during stage separations, fairing jettisoning,.
After encapsulation, the air velocity around the spacecraft due to the ventilation system is. The static pressure evolution under the fairing is shown in Figure 3. The depressurization. The typical thermal environment within the most of air-conditioned CSG facilities is kept.
This flux is calculated as a free molecular flow acting on a. Solar radiation, albedo, and terrestrial infrared radiation and conductive exchange with LV. As the Fregat attitude control thrusters are located in the vicinity of the spacecraft, they.
The heat flow Q distribution along the spacecraft bottom surface for one of the thrusters. The gantry not being airconditioned. During all spacecraft ground activities from spacecraft delivery to launch site up to lift-off,. The organic contamination in facilities and under the fairing is controlled. The LV materials are selected to limit spacecraft contamination during flight. The nonvolatile. LV emission constitute an integrated electromagnetic environment applied to the spacecraft.
The intensity of the electrical field generated by spurious or intentional emissions from the. Actual levels will be the same or lower taking into account the attenuation effects due to the.
Actual spacecraft compatibility with these emissions will be assessed during the preliminary. The Soyuz and Fregat telemetry system capture the low and high frequency data during the. Should a Customer provides the adapter, Arianespace will supply the Customer with. For satellites with characteristics outside these domains, please contact Arianespace. In that case the design limit load factors given in next paragraph are applicable. The flight limit levels of QSL for a spacecraft launched on Soyuz , and complying with the.
The geometrical discontinuities and differences in the local stiffness of the LV stiffener,. Such local over line loads are specific of the adapter design.
For off-the-shelf adapters a. The Soyuz launch vehicle provides standard interfaces that fit most of spacecraft buses. Arianespace and the Customer can conduct a joint investigation in order to find the most. Accessibility to the mating interface, separation system functional requirements and noncollision. The same procedures is applicable to the optional radio-transparent windows. The radiotransparent. Arianespace on the cylindrical section of the fairing. The dimensions, colors, and location.
Any of the Soyuz adapters can be used in conjunction with this carrying structure to. The Soyuz offers a range of standard off-the-shelf adapters and their associated. For this case a dedicated structure will. In such cases, the Customer shall ask the Arianespace approval and. Arianespace will supervise the design and production of. The electrical interface composition between spacecraft and the Soyuz LV is presented in. All other data and communication network used for spacecraft preparation in the CSG.
As a standard, and in particular for GTO launches, only 74 lines 2×37 are available at the spacecraftpayload. The end-to-end resistance of these umbilical links is less than 1.
To establish this extension, Arianespace will provide a new set of. Fregat pyrotechnic circuits. The first barrier is closed 5 seconds before lift-off, and the. For a recurrent. The electrical interface between satellite and launch vehicle is validated on each phase of. The electrical interface of the functional satellite simulator shall simulate the spacecraft. It lies on the Atlantic coast of the Northern part of South America, close to the. It is accessible by sea and air, served by international companies, on regular basis.
Arianespace provides all needed support for. A dedicated Arianespace office is located in the airport to welcome all participants. The area is completely dedicated to the Customer launch teams and is use for all nonhazardous. For Soyuz LV these facilities will be used also for the final spacecraft encapsulation under.
The area close location to the Ariane and. The satellite is transported to the different halls on air cushions or trolleys.
The Soyuz launch site is a dedicated area designed for launch vehicle final preparation,. It includes. The launch pad consists of the metallic support structure integrated with the concrete launch.
The support arms and launch table servicing equipment are identical to the other Soyuz launch. The mobile servicing gantry protect from the outside environment and constitute a.
Details of anti-sismic racks installation and interfaces can be obtained from Arianespace. The main CSG administrative buildings and offices, including safety and security service,. Its location,. The spacecraft launch manager or his representatives stay in the Mission Control Centre during. No specific mechanical requirements are applicable during the activity at the CSG except. Details on the mechanical environment of the spacecraft when it is removed from its container.
For non-critical equipment like general lighting, power outlets, site services, etc. Category II is used for the equipment which must be independent from the main power supply,. The existing CSG network will extend its capability to cover new Soyuz facility and will.
Arianespace provides specified numbers of telephone and fax equipment for voice and data. CSG facility to any desired location. Hazardous operations such as fuelling. Spacecraft handling equipment is provided by. Arianespace provides the following standard fluids and gases to support the Customer. The CSG is equipped with laboratories for chemical analysis of fluids and gases. Arianespace does not supply propellants. Propellant analyses, except Xenon, can be. Disposal of chemical products and propellants are not authorized at CSG and.
Normal working hours at the CSG are based on 2 Shifts of 8 hours per day, between. No activities should be. Arianespace , the PPF may be used by another spacecraft. In this case the spacecraft. The CSG is equipped with different storage facilities that can be used as for the. All CSG facilities are equipped with safety equipment and first aid kits. Any activity involving a potential source of danger is to be reported to CSG , which in.
The spacecraft design and spacecraft operations compatibility with CSG safety rules is. In order to use the CSG facility in a safe way, Arianespace will provide general training.
The access badges to the CSG facility will be provided by Arianespace according to the. By addressing the equipment to CSG with attention of. Arianespace will support the Customer in obtaining customs clearances at all ports of. The CSG is fully equipped to give first medical support on the spot with including first.
The Program Director, through the Arianespace organization. An operational. Besides the meetings and reviews described hereafter, Arianespace will meet the. Arianespace ensures the procurement of LV hardware according to its industrial.
Arianespace and the Customer with support of the appropriate document package. The output of the Preliminary Mission Analysis will be used to define the adaptation of the. This study allows Arianespace to check the compatibility between the frequencies used by.
A Spacecraft thermal model provided by the Customer in accordance with Arianespace. The Final Mission Analysis focuses on the actual flight plan and the final flight prediction. The study allows Arianespace to adjust the ventilation parameters during operations with. In close relationship with mission analysis, Arianespace will support the Customer in.
After reviewing these documents, Arianespace will edit the Compatibility Notice that will. Arianespace requests to attend environmental tests for real time discussion of notching. During the flight, the Spacecraft physical separation confirmation will be provided in real. Arianespace will give within 1 hour after the last separation, the first formal diagnosis. For additional verification of LV performance, Arianespace requires the Customer to.
The first flight results based on real time flight assessment will be presented during Post. Arianespace provides the Customer with a Flight Synthesis Report within 45 days after. The Spacecraft launch campaign formally begins with the delivery in CSG of the.
It is includes the operations from the Spacecraft arrival to the CSG and up to the. The major. The major operational. Plan preparation. Arianespace use computer-aided activities management to ensure that the activities. Based on the Satellite Operations Plan, Arianespace establishes a countdown manual that. Arianespace wishes to be invited to the preshipment or equivalent review, organized by. Besides Spacecraft readiness, this review may address the CSG and launch vehicle.
Arianespace will hold a preparation meeting with the customer at the CSG before satellite. The readiness of the facilities at entrance port, and at CSG for satellite. This review is conducted by Arianespace. The Customer is part of the review. At the end of the campaign Arianespace organizes wash-up meetings. The technical. Equipment should be packed on pallets or. On arrival at the PPF the. Customer is in charge of equipment unloading and dispatching with CSG and Arianespace.
In case of liquid propulsion Arianespace brings the propellant from the storage area to the. Hazardous operations are monitored from a remote control room. CSG Safety department. The integration of hazardous items category A pyrotechnic devices, etc Fluids and propellant analyses are carried out by Arianespace on Customer\’s request as.
The four strap-on boosters Soyuz first stage , the central core second stage , and the. Soyuz third stage are assembled, and integrated together in the LV Integration Building. Autonomous and combined tests are performed on the. Then the three stage launch vehicle is transported to. These activities are conducted in parallel. This is achieved through preventive and palliative actions:. CSG is responsible for the implementation of the Safety Regulations and for ensuring that.
All launches from the CSG require approvals from. The CSG safety department representatives monitor and coordinate these operations for. Any activity involving a potential source of danger is to be reported to the CSG safety.
The CSG safety department. On request from the Customer, the CSG can provide specific protection equipment for. The extension of the commercial operations to Soyuz does not affect the quality.
The Arianespace organization presents a well defined decisional and authorization tree. The Quality directorate representatives provide uninterrupted. Arianespace analyses and registers the modifications or evolutions of the system and. Arianespace has access to the industrial anomaly resolution system build by Soyuz.
The anomaly reviews and acceptance of the LV procurement,. The resulting launch window must include the. Any particular constraint that the spacecraft faces up to injection in the separation orbit. Include transmit and receive points location of antenna e to be considered for radio links.
The Customer prepares a file containing all the documents necessary to inform CSG of. Dates are given in months, relative to L, where L is the first day of the latest agreed Launch.
Within the framework of the Launch Service Agreement Arianespace supplies standard items. Arianespace will provide a dedicated mission organisation and resources to fulfill its.
Arianespace will perform the Mission Analyses as defined in chapter 7 in number and. Arianespace will supply the hardware and software to carry out the mission, complying. Request s for. Subject to advanced notice and performed nominally within normal CSG working hours. The following Optional items and Services list is an abstract of the \”Tailored and optional.
Soyuz LV. It is a composite structure in the form of a truncated cone with a diameter of. Customers interested by this launch configuration are requested to contact Arianespace. Globalstar launch services agreement and was successfully flown six times on the Soyuz. The Soyuz launch vehicle in the present configuration is in operation since except.
Since , a few improvements were introduced to the Soyuz Launch vehicle to. The latest improvements that were introduced to the Soyuz. The control system performs the following functions for flight of the first three stages of. The control system of the Soyuz operated from the CSG is based on a digital computer.
The Soyuz attitude control system ACS is capable of handling the aerodynamic. The Soyuz is able to perform in-flight roll maneuvers as well as in-plane yaw. A digital telemetry system with transmitters operating in S band, compatible with CSG. The Soyuz launched from the CSG uses proven logic of automatic on-board safety.
It extends the capability of the lower three stages of the Soyuz vehicle to. Both three-axis stabilized orientation and spinstabilized. This LV configuration allowed the Soyuz to. Since Soyuz entry to the commercial market in there has been TBD successful. The two failures listed in May 14 and June 20 were due to a manufacturing defect of the fairing. Since the fairings for the two flights were manufactured in a batch, the same defect was.
The cause was identified, other fairings in the batch were repaired, and corrective. The failure on October 15, was due to a particle in the hydrogen peroxide circuit running the.
This anomaly was detected after 37 successful launches of the same. Nevertheless comprehensive corrective actions were taken in the design of the. The last failure occurred on June 21 st , with a Molnya launch vehicle.
The block A on Molnya operates. The block I engine was. These anomaly is inherently linked to the Molnya launch vehicle characteristics, and in no. Environmental conditions Soyuz CSG. Design And Verification Requirement. Items and services for an Soyuz CSG. Extended embed settings. You have already flagged this document. Thank you, for helping us keep this platform clean. The editors will have a look at it as soon as possible. Self publishing. Share Embed Flag. TAGS soyuz manual arianespace arianespace.
You also want an ePaper? These launch systems are operated by Arianespace from the same spaceport: the Guiana Space Centre. This document contains the essential data which is necessary: To assess compatibility of a spacecraft and spacecraft mission with launch system, To constitute the general launch service provisions and specifications, To initiate the preparation of all technical and operational documentation related to a launch of any spacecraft on the launch vehicle.
Inquiries concerning clarification or interpretation of this manual should be directed to the addresses listed below. Comments and suggestions on all aspects of this manual are encouraged and appreciated. Subsidiary Arianespace Inc. Suite N. In case of modification introduced after the present issue, the updated pages of the document will be provided on the Arianespace website www.
Arianespace combines low risk and flight proven launch systems with financing, insurance and back-up services providing reactivity for quick responses and decisions and tailor-made solutions for start-ups or established players.
An experienced and reliable company Arianespace established the most trusted commercial launch system satisfactorily managing more than contracts, the industry record. Arianespace has a unique processing and launch experience with all commercial satellite platforms as well as with very demanding scientific missions.
European political support, periodically confirmed, and international cooperation agreements at state level Russia, Ukraine … , brings non comparable advantages. History 1. Launch vehicle general data 1.
European spaceport and CSG facilities 1. Launch service organization 1. Arianespace 1. Partners 1. European space transportation system organization 1. Phase I – Ascent of the first three stages 2. Phase II – Fregat upper stage flight profile 2. Phase III – Fregat deorbitation or orbit disposal maneuver 2.
Geosynchronous transfer orbit missions 2. Circular orbits 2. Elliptical orbit missions 2. Earth escape missions 2. Orientation performance 2. Steady state accelerations 3. Sine-equivalent dynamics 3. Random vibrations 3. Acoustic vibrations 3.
Shocks 3. Static pressure under the fairing 3. Introduction 3. Ground operations 3. Cleanliness 3. Contamination 3. Safety requirements 4. Selection of spacecraft materials 4. Spacecraft properties 4. Dimensioning loads 4. Verification logic 4. Safety factors 4. Payload usable volume definition 5.
Spacecraft accessibility 5. Special on-fairing insignia 5. Payload compartment description 5. Spacecraft to EGSE umbilical lines 5. Electrical continuity interface 5. French Guiana 6. Arrival areas 6. Payload preparation complex EPCU 6.
Facilities for combined and launch operations 6. Environmental conditions 6. Power supply 6. Communications network 6. Transportation and handling 6. Fluids and gases 6. CSG Planning constraints 6. Security 6. Safety 6. Training course 6. Contract organization 7. Interface Management 7. Mission Analysis 7. Spacecraft Design Compatibility Verification 7. Post-launch Analysis 7. Introduction 7. Spacecraft Launch campaign preparation phase 7.
Launch Campaign Organization 7. Launch campaign meetings and reviews 7. Summary of a typical launch campaign 7. General 7. Safety Submission 7. Safety training 7. Chapter 1 – Introduction 1. On completion of the feasibility phase, formal documentation will be established in accordance with the procedures outlined in Chapter 7. Thanks to their complementarities, they cover all commercial and governmental mission requirements, providing access to the different type of orbits from Low Earth Orbit to Geostationary Transfer Orbit and even to interplanetary one.
This family approach provides Customers with a real flexibility to launch their spacecrafts and insure in a timely manner their planning for orbit delivery. The Soyuz operation complements the Ariane 5 and Vega offer in the medium-weight payload class for low earth orbit, and provides additional flexibility in delivery of satellite up to 3 t to GTO orbit.
These decisions covered the continuity of the Ariane 5 launch service, the development and commercial availability of the Vega small launch vehicle from onwards, and the Soyuz commercial operations from the Guiana Space Centre, starting in The exclusive exploitation of this launch vehicle family was entrusted to Arianespace — a unique launch services operator relying on the European and Russian space industry. Arianespace provides the customer with a project oriented management system, based on a single point of contact the Program Director for all launch service activities, in order to simplify and streamline the process, adequate configuration control for the interface documents and hardware, transparence of the launch system to assess the mission progress and schedule control.
Soyuz launch vehicle family 1. History The Soyuz is the most recent of a long line of Soyuz family vehicles that, taken together, are acknowledged to be the most frequently rockets launched in the world. Vehicles of this family, that launched both the first satellite Sputnik, and the first man Yuri Gagarin, into space, have been credited with more than launches to date. The three-stage version known as Soyuz , first introduced in , has been launched more than times.
Due to their close technical similarity same lower three stages , the Molniya and Soyuz vehicles are commonly combined together for reliability calculations. As the primary manned launch vehicle in Russia and the former Soviet Union, and as today one of the primary transport to the International Space Station, the Soyuz has benefited from these standards in both reliability and robustness.
Soyuz LVs continue to be mass-produced in Samara, Russia, by the Samara Space Center, whose facilities have been designed to accommodate the production of up to four LVs per month. Vehicle Reliability Table 1. Reliability figures are presented individually for the lower three stages of the vehicle and for the Fregat upper stage. This is primarily due to the large statistical database of flights with the lower three stages.
To provide most relevant data to future missions, it was chosen to present reliability figures for the flights performed in the past 25 years.
It takes into account all launch system failures, regardless of corrections or modifications. Taken into account the design objectives and extensive qualification program, it is projected that the flight reliability of Soyuz with the new components of the launch vehicle such as the larger payload fairing, third stage engines and control system will not be affected.
Launch system description Arianespace offers a complete launch system including the vehicle, the launch facilities, and the associated services. Size: 2. CNES provides all needed range support, requested by Arianespace , for satellite and launch vehicle preparation and launch. The facilities are capable to process several satellites of different customers in the same time, thanks to large cleanrooms and supporting infrastructures.
Designed for Ariane-5 dual launch capability and high launch rate, the EPCU capacity is sufficient to be shared by the Customers of all three launch vehicles.
Launch service organization Arianespace is organized to offer a Launch Service based on a continuous interchange of information between a Spacecraft Interface Manager Customer , and the Arianespace Program Director Arianespace who are appointed at the time of the launch contract signature. For a given launch, therefore, there can be one or two Spacecraft Interface Manager s and one or two Arianespace Program Directors, depending on whether the launch is a single or dual one with different customers.
Corporate organization 1. In order to meet the market needs, Arianespace has established a worldwide presence: in Europe, with headquarter located at Evry near Paris, France; in North America with Arianespace Inc. Arianespace is the international leader in commercial launch services, and today holds an important part of the world market for satellites launched to the geostationary transfer orbit GTO. Arianespace provides each customer a true end-to-end service, from manufacture of the launch vehicle to mission preparations at the Guiana Space Centre and successful in-orbit delivery of payloads for a broad range of mission.
Arianespace as a unique commercial operator oversees the marketing and sales, production and operation from CSG of Ariane, Soyuz and Vega launch vehicles.
Arianespace continues the Soyuz commercial operations started in in Baikonur by Starsem having as of January a record of 15 successful launches. Figure 1. European Space transportation system organization Arianespace benefits from a simplified procurement organization that relies on a prime supplier for each launch vehicle. The prime supplier backed by his industrial organization is in charge of production, integration, and launch preparation of the launch vehicle.
To illustrate the industrial experience concentrated behind the Soyuz prime supplier, the Figure 1. Main suppliers 1. The agency also performs interdisciplinary coordination of national scientific and application space programs.
It was created in February by a decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation. Operations under FSA responsibility include more than aeronautic and space companies and organizations. The Samara Space Center is one of the world leaders in the design of launchers, spacecraft and related systems. Its history goes back to the start of the space program in when a branch of the Moscow OKB-1 design bureau was established in the city of Kuibyshev now known as Samara.
The Center developed a family of launch vehicles derived from the OKB-1\’s R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile. Approximately 10 versions were developed, including Sputnik which carried the first man-made satellite into orbit , Vostok used for the initial manned space flight , Molniya, and Soyuz.
In addition to years of experience building launch vehicles, TsSKB-Progress has also built numerous earth observation and scientific satellites. NPO Lavotchkine adapts, produces and is the technical authority for the Fregat upper stage. NPO Lavotchkin is also the technical authority for the assembled upper composite. Barmin Design Bureau for General Engineering, was founded in KBOM specialises in the design and operation of launch facilities, space rocket ground infrastructure and in orbit processing equipment.
Introduction This section provides the information necessary to make preliminary performance assessments for the Soyuz LV. The paragraphs that follow present the vehicle reference performance, typical accuracy, attitude orientation, and mission duration. The provided data covers a wide range of missions from spacecraft delivery to geostationary transfer orbit GTO , to injection into sun-synchronous and polar orbit, as well as low and high circular or elliptical orbit, and escape trajectories.
Performance data presented in this manual are not fully optimized as they do not take into account the specificity of the Customer\’s mission. Nevertheless, the performance value may slightly vary for specific missions due to ground path and azimuth specific constraints.
The customer is requested to contact Arianespace for accurate data. Ascent of the first three stages The flight profile is optimized for each mission. The upper composite Fregat with payload is separated on a sub-orbital path, Fregat being used, in most cases, to reach an intermediate parking orbit the so-called intermediate orbit ascent profile , in other cases after separation from the third stage, a single Fregat boost may inject the upper composite into the targeted orbit the so-called direct ascent profile.
The optimum mission profile will be selected depending upon specific mission requirements. A typical Soyuz three-stage ascent profile and the associated sequence of events are shown in Figure 2. A typical ground track for the lower three stages is presented in the Figure 2.
An example of the evolution of altitude and relative velocity during the ascent profile of the first three stages is presented in Figure 2.
Jettisoning of the payload fairing can take place at different times depending on the aerothermal flux requirements on the payload. Typically, fairing separation takes place depending on the trajectory between and seconds from liftoff owing to aerothermal flux limitations.
Lift-off 0 s 2. Fairing jettisoning s 4. Third stage lower skirt jettisoning s 6. Block A Sep. Galliot Fairing Block I Sep. Fregat upper stage flight profile Following the third stage cut-off, the restartable Fregat upper stage delivers the payload or payloads to their final orbits.
In this case, the Fregat ACS thrusters are operated 5 seconds after separation from the third stage followed 55 seconds later with the ignition of the main Fregat engine.
Fregat burns are then performed to transfer the payload as described above. Up to 20 burns may be provided by the Fregat to reach the final orbit or to deliver the payload to the different orbits.
Fregat deorbitation or orbit disposal manoeuvre After spacecraft separation and following the time delay needed to provide a safe distance between the Fregat upper stage and the spacecraft, the Fregat typically conducts a deorbitation or orbit disposal manoeuvre. This manoeuvre is carried out by an additional burn of the Fregat\’s ACS thrusters or in some cases by the main engine.
Parameters of the \”safe\” orbit or entry into the earth\’s atmosphere will be chosen in accordance with international laws pertaining to space debris and will be coordinated with the user during mission analysis. General performance data 2. Geostationary transfer orbit missions 2. Standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit GTO The geostationary satellites will benefit of the advantageous location of the Guiana Space Centre: its low latitude minimizes the satellite on-board propellant needed to reach the equatorial plane, providing additional lifetime.
Za is equivalent to true altitude at first apogee The longitude of the first descending node is usually located around TBD deg West.
The Soyuz performance for this orbit with the RD or the RD 3rd stage engine is: kg and kg respectively. Standard GTO mission: 1. Lift-off 2. Satellite separation 5. It is applicable to satellites with liquid propulsion systems giving the possibility of several transfer burns to the GEO and which tank capacity allows the optimal use of the performance gain.
The satellite propellant gain can be used for lifetime extension or for an increase of the satellite drymass. The satellite realizes then a Perigee Velocity Augmentation maneuver using proper extra propellant. The overall propulsion budget of the mission translates in a benefit for the spacecraft in terms of lifetime for a given dry-mass or in terms of dry mass for a given lifetime compared to the standard GTO injection profile. The injection scheme is the same as the one presented for the GTO mission, but with a final Fregat burn to change the inclination and circularize on the GSO.
Super GTO and GSO injection While the injection orbit for a single launch on Soyuz can be optimized with a higher apogee, and even, technically speaking, with a launch directly on the GSO, the standard injection remains on the standard GTO that provides the customer the full benefit of the compatibility of the two launch systems: Ariane and Soyuz. SSO and Polar orbits The earth observation, meteorological and scientific satellites will benefit of the Soyuz capability to delivery them directly into the sun synchronous orbits SSO or polar circular orbits.
Performance data for polar orbits are presented in Figure 2. These data are to be considered for trade-off studies and require flight safety approval to confirm feasibility of the targeted orbit. Other circular orbits Almost all orbit inclinations can be accessed from the CSG. Supply missions to the International Space Station, satellite constellations deployment and scientific missions can also be performed by Soyuz from the CSG.
LV performance data for circular orbit missions with inclination 56 and 63 deg, and altitudes between and 25, km are presented in Figure 2. For precise data, please contact Arianespace. LV Performance [kg] Circular Orbit Altitude [km] Figure 2. Orbit inclination 56 deg. Elliptical orbit missions The Fregat restartable capability offers a great flexibility to servicing a wide range of elliptical orbits.
In some cases, when a lower altitude of perigee is required, the mission will be reduced to two Fregat burns. LV performance data for a Earth escape missions LV Performance [kg] The performance data for earth escape missions is presented in Figure 2. For more accurate data, users should contact Arianespace for a performance estimate and a mission-adapted profile. Injection accuracy The accuracy of the four-stage Soyuz is determined mainly by the performance of the Fregat upper stage.
Conservative accuracy data depending on type of the mission are presented in Table 2. Mission-specific injection accuracy will be calculated as part of the mission analysis. Table 2.
Mission duration Mission duration from lift-off until separation of the spacecraft on the final orbit depends on the selected mission profile, specified orbital parameters, injection accuracy, and the ground station visibility conditions at spacecraft separation. Typically, critical mission events such as payload separation are carried out within the visibility of LV ground stations. This allows for the receipt of near-real-time information on relevant flight events, orbital parameters on-board estimation, and separation conditions.
The typical durations of various missions without the visibility constraint of spacecraft separation are presented in Table 2. Actual mission duration will be determined as part of the detailed mission analysis, taking into account ground station availability and visibility.
Launch windows The Soyuz LV can be launched any day of the year, any time of the day respecting the specified lift-off time. The launch window is defined taking in to account the satellite mission requirements such as the orbit accuracy or the separation orbital position requirements for the right ascension of the ascending node [RAAN] and the respective ability of the launch vehicle to recover launch time error.
In case of shared dual launch, Arianespace will taken into account the launch windows of each co-passenger to define combined launch window. In order to allow the possibility of several launch attempts and account for any weather or technical concern resolution a minimum launch window of 45 minutes is recommended.
The actual launch window of each mission and its impact on performance will be calculated as part of mission analysis activities. Spacecraft orientation during the flight During coast phases of the flight the Attitude Control Systems allow the launch vehicle to satisfy a variety of spacecraft orbital requirements, including thermal control maneuvers, sun-angle pointing constraints, and telemetry transmission maneuvers.
On the contrary, the active parts of the mission like ascent boost phases and upper stage orbital burns and TM maneuvers will determine the attitude position of spacecraft. The best strategy to meet satellite and launch vehicle constraints will be defined with the Customer during the Mission Analysis process. Separation mode and pointing accuracy The actual pointing accuracy will result from the Mission Analysis.
The following values cover Soyuz compatible spacecrafts as long as their balancing characteristics are in accordance with para.
They are given as satellite kinematic conditions at the end of separation and assume the adapter and separation system are supplied by Arianespace. In case the adapter is provided by the Satellite Authority, the Customer should contact Arianespace for launcher kinematic conditions just before separation.
Possible perturbations induced by spacecraft sloshing masses are not considered in the following values. Higher spin rates are possible but shall be specifically analyzed. Orientation of composite around Z axis 2. Orientation of composite around Y axis 3.
Spin-up 4. Spacecraft separation 5. Spin down 6. Orientation for deorbitation Figure 2. For each mission, Arianespace will verify that the distances between orbiting bodies are adequate to avoid any risk of collision until the launcher final maneuver. For this analysis, the Customer has to provide Arianespace with its orbit and attitude maneuver flight plan, otherwise the spacecraft is assumed to have a pure ballistic trajectory i.
After completion of the separation s , the launch vehicle carries out a dedicated maneuver to avoid the subsequent collision or the satellite orbit contamination. Multi-separation capabilities The Soyuz LV is also able to perform multiple separations with mission peculiar payload dispensers or the internal dual launch carrying structure.
A conceptual definition of this kind of dispenser is presented in Annex TBD, the dual launch carrying structure is defined in chapter 5. In this case the kinematics conditions presented above will be defined through the dedicated separation analysis.
For more information, please contact Arianespace. General During the preparation for launch at the CSG and then during the flight, the spacecraft is exposed to a variety of mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic environments. This chapter provides a description of the environment that the spacecraft is intended to withstand.
All environmental data given in the following paragraphs should be considered as limit loads, applying to the spacecraft.
Without special notice all environmental data are defined at the spacecraft base, i. The following sections present the environment for the two configurations Soyuz a and Soyuz b. It is further noted that the introduction of the RD engine on the Soyuz b configuration is not expected to measurably affect either the quasi-static loads or the sine-vibration levels since its thrust is identical to that of the RD engine, and moreover, a sequenced shut-down profile is implemented to reduce the transient loads at the end of the third stage flight.
Mechanical environment 3. Steady state acceleration 3. On ground The flight steady state accelerations described hereafter cover the load to which the spacecraft is exposed during ground preparation. In flight During flight, the spacecraft is subjected to static and dynamic loads. Such excitations may be of aerodynamic origin e. The highest longitudinal acceleration occurs just before the first-stage cutoff and does not exceed 4. The highest lateral static acceleration may be up to 0.
The accelerations produced during Fregat flight are negligible and enveloped by the precedent events. Sine-equivalent dynamics Sinusoidal excitations affect the LV during its powered flight mainly the atmospheric flight , as well as during some of the transient phases.
The envelope of the sinusoidal or sine-equivalent vibration levels at the spacecraft base does not exceed the values given in Table 3. The sinusoidal excitation above 40 Hz is insignificant. Table 3. Maximum excitation levels are obtained during the first-stage flight.
The random vibrations must be taken into account for equipment dimensioning in the 20 — Hz frequency range, considering that at higher frequency it is covered by acoustic loads. Acoustic vibration 3. On Ground The noise level generated by the venting system does not exceed 95 dB. In Flight Acoustic pressure fluctuations under the fairing are generated by engine operation plume impingement on the pad during liftoff and by unsteady aerodynamic phenomena during atmospheric flight i.
Apart from liftoff and transonic flight, acoustic levels are substantially lower than the values indicated hereafter. The envelope spectrum of the noise induced inside the fairing during flight is shown in Table 3.
It corresponds to a space-averaged level within the volume allocated to the spacecraft stack, as defined in Chapter 5. The acoustic spectrum defined below covers excitations produced by random vibration at the spacecraft base for frequency band above Hz. It is assessed that the sound field under the fairing is diffuse. Shocks The spacecraft is subject to shock primarily during stage separations, fairing jettisoning, and actual spacecraft separation.
The envelope acceleration shock response spectrum SRS at the spacecraft base computed with a Q-factor of 10 is presented in Table 3. These levels are applied simultaneously in axial and radial directions. For customers wishing to use their own adapter the acceptable envelope at the launch vehicle interface will be provided on a peculiar base.
The velocity may locally exceed this value; contact Arianespace for specific concern. In Flight Pressure bar The payload compartment is vented during the ascent phase through one-way vent doors insuring a low depressurization rate of the fairing compartment.
The difference between the pressure under fairing and free-stream external static pressures, at the moment of the fairing jettisoning, is lower than 0,2 kPa 2 mbar. Thermal environment 3. Ground operations The environment that the spacecraft experiences both during its preparation and once it is encapsulated under the fairing is controlled in terms of temperature, relative humidity, cleanliness, and contamination.
Thermal conditions under the fairing During the encapsulation phase and once mated on the launch vehicle, the spacecraft is protected by an air-conditioning system provided by the ventilation through the pneumatic umbilicals: high flow rate H , and through the launch vehicle for the last 45 minutes, when the gantry has been rolled away: low flow rate L.
See fig 3. Flight environment 3. This figure does not take into account any effect induced by the spacecraft dissipated power. These uncertainties result in noisy experimental data, and can necessitate replication and reproduction of scientific experiments to attempt to reduce the uncertainties in desired measurements. This requires a high degree of confidence in the relevance of simulation results to the real world.
For engineers, the benefit of UQ is to become better aware and informed of the uncertainties present in simulation results when using them to make critical design decisions. Better informed decision-making leads to better product development outcomes. It was developed in cooperation with leading companies in the plastics industry.
It is easy to operate and is suitable to experts and users without CAD know-how. In the Viewer, calculations take place quickly and precisely. During the process, the wall thickness check also detects areas with heavy changes in wall thickness. Due to the fully automatic calculation of the projected area, the clamp force and thus the machine design can be determined with just a few mouse clicks without any CAD knowledge.
Moreover, the Viewer has dynamic cutting as well as measuring functions. Analysis functions are supplemented by geometric model comparison, to indicate differences between models of different formats. Additionally, for DMU examinations, there is a function to determine collisions in assemblies as well as to calculate clearances between all single parts or components and all surrounding parts. The latest version enables the creation of explosion views that can be animated as well as drawing creation as DWG files.
Floating licenses with a borrowing function enable a simple, flexible use of the software within and outside of companies. Drive web server access module.
Sinamics V20 Smart Access web server module mounts directly onto a drive, transforming a. This module provides a WI-FI hot spot, which facilitates setup, programming, commissioning, production monitoring and maintenance on machines and production equipment.
The module has a simple, embedded graphical user interface GUI. No separate app is required, nor is a written operator manual needed. Communication distance is up to meters, enabling access to drives located in difficult to reach areas.
A built-in, multi-color LED quickly shows status readout. In use, the Sinamics V20 Smart Access module requires only a few steps to set-up and no installation or download of additional software is needed. Users can monitor drive status including speed, current, voltage, temperature and power, as well as drive servicing, with an overview of alarms, faults and individual values.
Fault codes can be transferred with e-mail to a local service provider. Parameter adjustment, motor test functions and full data backup, storage and sharing with fast firmware downloads can all be accomplished with the web server. DW Siemens Digital Factory usa. Protect products during delivery A next-generation accelerometer is for long-period monitoring of the physical.
With its low power capabilities, the ADXL micropower high-g MEMS accelerometer targets Internet of Things IoT solutions where shock and impact on a unit during storage, transit, or use would adversely affect its function, safety, or reliability. Representative assets include materials inside shipping and storage containers, factory machinery, and battery powered products where there may be lengthy quiet periods punctuated by spontaneous, severe impacts.
The resulting low current requirement of less than two microamps while waiting for an impact typically yields years of operation from a single small battery when the sensor is used in a motion-activated system. Keeping the analysis localized saves power, time, and prevents unnecessary transfer of data for an event that is actually insignificant.
DW Analog Devices analog. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:. I nter net of Things. Designed as an off-the-shelf approach for quick turnaround needs, the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT Smart PT Select Mounted Spherical Roller Bearings suit conveyor and fan and blower applications in the aggregate, air and fluid handling, cement, and material and package handling industries. A suite of digital technology is built into and around this bearing.
N EWS Legacy equipment holds valuable untapped data that is needed to improve business processes and decisions in almost every enterprise and every industry. The partnership between IBM and Opto 22 enables developers to rapidly design, prototype, and deploy applications to connect existing industrial assets to the IBM Watson IoT platform and share their data, capabilities, and resources with other connected systems and assets, to build the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT.
Through this partnership, developers and systems integrators have a concise toolset for connecting the OT and IT domains. The partnership combines more than 40 years of OT domain expertise and innovation from Opto 22 with more than years of IT domain expertise and innovation from IBM.
The Watson IoT Platform reduces the need to focus on developing analytics systems and provides everything needed to harness the full potential of the Internet of Things. Developers can connect, set up, and manage edge-processing devices like programmable automation controllers from Opto 22 and apply realtime analytics, cognitive services, and blockchain technology to the data generated by these devices. Cognitive APIs deliver natural-language processing, machine-learning capabilities, text analytics, and image analytics to help developers realize the potential of the cognitive era with the IBM Watson IoT Platform.
Connecting existing industrial assets to IT systems requires translating the electrical signals voltage and current in the physical world to the bits and bytes of the digital world.
These industrial products also communicate and support well-known Internet technologies to support IIoT applications. The future of industrial automation and process control lies in the rising API and data economies made possible through open standards-based technologies.
Your Total Power Solution The most trusted brands, all under one roof. Canfield Connector offers a complete line of highquality sensors at value pricing. We offer tie rod and groove mount products to cover a full range of applications. We also provide NEMA 6 designs, hazardous location versions and custom wire types and lengths. DW Opto 22 opto At the recent Hannover Messe Preview in Germany, a new collaborative industrial robot was unveiled, dubbed Franka Emika.
Consequently, investment is project specific and cannot be depreciated over several projects. Franka Emika, which features 7 degrees of freedom, is a first-generation collaborative robot system that is designed to assist humans. The construction is completely modular, ultra-lightweight.
It has a highly integrated mechatronic design, sensitive torque sensors in all joints, and human-like kinematics, making the system unique. Users can also seamlessly stream its data tom connect with Industry 4. It provides quick-buttons to customize the apps and to execute their features. The pilot is essential for teaching the robot via demonstration. For example, the user can simply press the guiding button and take the robot by hand to teach it what to do.
After it learns the task, it operates. Franka Hand can grasp firmly and quickly for high performance and flexible pick and place. The fingers can be exchanged to optimally grasp a wide variety of objects. Due to its force-sensitivity and compliance, it can release and lock the fixture mechanism of its fingers by itself.
Hence, different optimized fingers can be seamlessly integrated into any automation processes, and manual tool exchanges become almost unnecessary. DW Franka Emika franka.
Our No. One or multiple locations. Handles very small to extra large fasteners. Patients treated on the GammaPod will likely only need between one to five treatments in order to eradicate certain breast cancers, which is much shorter than the current six-week, five days a week course of radiation.
At the core of this new machine is a moving bed for a prone patient and a patented two-cup system that holds and stabilizes the breast with the target.
This allows a targeted and powerful dose of radiation using 36 Cobalt sources that can be administered in new and unique ways, with less dose to normal tissue. The GammaPod from Xcision Medical Systems aims to eliminate early stage breast cancer with as little as one treatment. A highly accurate and targeted radiation dose means less dosing to healthy tissue. Rotary servo table drives optoacoustic imaging system Scientists at Tomowave Laboratories use technologies based on light and sound to make imaging systems for the healthcare industry.
These technologies use optoacoustic and laser ultrasonic methods to produce modalities such as a laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system, which uses pulses of laser light with a dark red color. Optoacoustic tomography OAT is a technique for generating highresolution images of biological tissue that scatters light waves, typically biological tissue.
Biological tissue absorbs this light, causing it to heatup by a fraction of one degree. The resulting temperature increase causes an increase in pressure, which generates ultrasonic optoacoustic waves. The imaging scanner uses arrays of transducers to measure these ultrasound waves at different locations to generate images of internal tissue of different human and animal organs, such as breast or prostate.
These systems listen to the sound of light, allowing doctors to detect and diagnose cancer and other conditions. Recently, engineers at Tomowave developed a system that combines light and sound to generate three-dimensional images of tissue submerged in the imaging module, primarily the tissue of small animals used for research purposes and development of new contrast agents or therapeutic methods. This optoacoustic tomography system is the first of its kind to produce functional 3D images of biological tissue with equally high resolution in each volumetric direction.
The system provides comprehensive information on anatomy and function. These images are especially useful for studying the distribution of blood and its oxygenation level. Imaging module Preclinical research systems rotate the object of study, while the module itself rotates in systems used in clinical settings such as breast imaging systems. Noninvasive breast imaging systems apply the same technology to produce three-dimensional volumetric optoacoustic images and a stack of two-dimensional ultrasonic images, allowing for image co-registration.
These systems produce scans at different wavelengths in minutes with minimal patient discomfort. Custom software processes the volumetric data according to the specific items of interest, which may include hemoglobin content, oxygen saturation and vasculature visualization. The imaging system uses a PSRUT low-profile rotary servo table from IntelLiDrives to rotate the imaging module at a constant speed, which is programmed in advance.
The movement is designed using precise motor controls, gear boxes, and linear bearings, as well as five linear encoders on the bed and two rotary encoders on the bowl system. Even movements that occur while the system is without power are translated into accurate values once the system is powered up again.
The absolute encoders are used for a secondary positional measurement to verify correct positioning which ensures the accuracy of the delivered dose. The direct mounting and absolute calibration provide real-time quality assurance of the bed positioning system.
With a patient lying face down on the machine bed, rather than on their back, the breast to be treated naturally falls further away from the chest wall, helping to minimize dose to organs in that region. These linear encoders are directly mounted on the two table support columns. On each column, Xcision separately monitors the height and lateral offset of the table and the fifth monitors the length axis. The linear encoders are rigidly mounted to the table. The LIC exposed encoders are characterized by permitting absolute position measurement both over large traverse paths up to 28 m , at high accuracy and at high traversing speed, although Xcision only needs around mm of travel.
The absolute nature of the linear encoders is critical because it allows for detection of primary system failure or calibration error.
According to Maton, with the redundant secondary system, the position of the patient is confirmed to be free of such failure or calibration errors, thus ensuring treatment of the correct location in the breast. Your Partner moving forward! From traditional industry standards to specialized couplings for the next generation of emerging markets, Eaton continues to provide quick disconnect coupling solutions to meet your needs.
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Our local sales and service specialists are experts in providing application and technical solutions, with the choices and expertise you need to stay up and running. We had started off with relative magnetic encoders in our design, but they were not satisfactory for a couple of reasons.
First, we had the problem of having to rotate very slowly in order to find the zero point at each power. The inner cup is designed to. M ot i o n constrain the shape of the breast. Suction between the cups gently pulls the breast to completely fill the inner cup, and immobilize it.
The patient is imaged on a CT scanner, then without removing the cup, moved to the treatment device and the cup is locked into the treatment bed. A copper wire referred to as a fiducial marker embedded in the cup is used to establish a 3D coordinate system which is used for treatment planning to create the bed position sequence control points for the treatment.
The focused and concentrated dose of radiation is delivered according to this sequence. The focus means that the dose will fall off sharply outside the target volume, reducing dose to healthy breast tissue, organs such as the heart and lungs, and to the skin.
This decrease in collateral dose minimizes unwanted exposure and side effects. The planned treatment is based on the established coordinate system and motion control, and includes a specific amount of time for the radiation beams to remain in each position in order to achieve the correct distribution of dose.
The system is designed to match a planned dose and delivered dose within one millimeter. But they may be involved in the design of highperformance servo-controlled systems in which mechanical parameters such as stiffness, mass, and damping are interchangeable with proportional, integral and derivative parameters of a PID controller. So, the design or sizing of mechanical components for automated setups should be done with good understanding of the motion controller and its associated filters.
The tool interface is shown in Figure one: Overview of the tutorial webtool. Based on a simple positioning system model, it lets users change both PID and mechanical parameters of the model and observe their effects on system performance. Design or sizing mechanical components for automated designs is more effective with an understanding of motion controllers. Relationship of servo parameters and mechanical phenomena PID servo parameters and mechanical design parameters of high-performance automation tools are closely related.
One self-study webtool can demonstrate the effects of both servo and mechanical parameters of a typical positioning system on its dynamic performance and stability. The tool we demonstrate lets users select stage parameters that characterize the actual plant — and then use iterative strategies to select an optimal set of PID parameters to maximize overall system performance for robust, safe, and stable operation.
Block diagram and system modeling The block diagram of the model as shown in Figure two: Block diagram of the model represents a simplified closed-loop servo system of a positioning stage. It includes a PID controller, a stage plant , feedback loop, reference position command Xr and actual stage position X. X is sensed by an encoder or by any other positioning feedback device. They are the most influential mechanical parameters on the dynamic performance of most positioning systems.
Input parameters are in yellow boxes. Results are in blue boxes. Settling time after a step input is shown on the upper chart. Frequency responses of the plant PID controller as well as closed-loop and open-loop transfer functions are shown on the bottom. Access this tool at optineer. Also use the tool for learning by changing system parameters and clicking RUN again to observe their effects on results. As shown in figure two, a driving motor force F acts on the stage block as an input and results in the actual stage position X as an output.
Transfer functions and phase angles The explicit relationship between the output X and input Xr of the closed-loop servo system requires simultaneous solution of the two differential equations. The solution is simplified from differential equations in time domain t to algebraic equations in frequency domain s by using their Laplace transform.
The Laplace transform H s of our closed-loop transfer function is represented:. The phase of output X with respect to input Xr is measured in degrees. That makes it a positive feedback inside the controller and a source for possible instability of the closed-loop servo system.
Plant frequency response and stability of closed-loop servo systems When we RUN the webtool after clicking EXAMPLE, the results in the blue boxes below the stage parameters show two important stage characteristics of any automation system — the lowest natural resonance frequency and the damping coefficient. High performance machines are typically designed for high stiffness K and low moving mass M to get the highest value for the lowest natural frequency.
The frequency response Bode plot of the stage is shown in Figure three: Frequency response of the stage plant. In this figure, we see that the gain has an approximately constant value all the way up to the natural frequency.
At the natural frequency, the gain increases with a peak bounded by the magnitude of the damping coefficient. Similarly, the phase starts at zero degrees in low frequencies. Designing hydraulic systems to perform flawlessly under less-than-ideal conditions is hard enough. The Lee Company.
Plus many applications in between. If you require precise fluid control, and absolute reliability, go with the experts. Contact The Lee Company. C o n t r o l Real dynamic systems have multiple natural frequencies and usually multiple axes. But the single-axis model in this webtool is a good performance estimator of most positioning systems.
Optimal choices for the simple model have mass, stiffness, and damping parameters that yield the lowest natural frequency and damping coefficient of the more complex system. These two-system characteristics are easily measured for any complex system by an impact test and an accelerometer that traces settling time decay. PID controller frequency response Many control systems have in addition to a position-feedback loop inner velocity and current feedback loops.
Yet they all share the same basic closed-loop transfer function H s as shown in figure three. The difference is in the complexity of their H s expression and the numbers of zeros and poles, with which the controller filters are shaped. A zero is a frequency at which the gain becomes zero, and a pole is the frequency at which the gain goes to infinity. Although these complex filters are beyond the scope of this tool, the PID as used in our model is considered a classic filter, which is used in many controllers.
It is simple having only one pole and two zeros , relatively easy to understand, and a good one with which to start training for an intuitive understanding of servo-system performance.
M o t i o n When we click RUN, the corner-points results of the integral and derivative gains appear in the blue boxes below the yellow PID parameters. Corner points are the frequencies where the integral gain and the derivative gain cross the proportional gain. Together they define the shape of a trough, as shown in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller.
Looking at the gain of the PID frequency response in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller, we see that the integral contribution on the left side of the trough amplifies the error signal at low frequencies and attenuates it at high frequencies.
The derivative on the right side amplifies the high frequencies and attenuates the low frequencies. The proportional gain in between the two corner frequencies defines the bottom of the trough. So if we want to reshape the trough and move the corner point of the integral gain to the left for example we decrease the integral gain. But if we want to move the corner point of the derivative gain to the right, we decrease the derivative gain and vice versa.
Similarly, if we want to raise the bottom of the trough we increase the proportional gain The reader may test these trends by making the changes in the webtool and observing the results on the trough position and shape. In a general machine design, the proportional gain Kp and the motor constant Kf act as mechanical stiffeners K which improve the response time. The derivative gain Kd acts as a mechanical damper B which attenuate high oscillations. The integral gain Ki may act in some cases as a mechanical attenuator such as the inertial effect of a moving mass M.
However, in positioning systems it is mostly used in overcoming position errors due to friction. These lead screw and ball screw actuators offer the benefits of a space saving design, fast and simple assembly, long life, and a competitive price. The rigid enclosed aluminum box structure provides a compact envelope that incorporates the linear bearing and drive mechanism.
Integrating all components into a single unit that includes the motor adaptor saves assembly time and eliminates the need to source additional parts. DL series linear actuators are offered in travel lengths up to mm. The DL ball screw and lead screw actuators utilize recirculating guide technology to provide a low profile and compact design solution. Our DW series double wide is engineered to create a wider mounting platform while still maintaining the same low profile height as our standard width DL actuators.
This double wide design is ideal for applications that need a greater carriage mounting area or where axial play must be minimized. Open-loop frequency response and phase margin When we multiply the two transfer functions — including the plant G s and controller K s — we create the open-loop transfer function K s G s , as shown for our EXAMPLE in Figure five: Frequency response of the open-loop transfer function.
The open-loop frequency response is an important visual aid for phase margin and gain margin, which are the indicators of system stability. The physical meaning of this expression is that when an output. This positive feedback tends increase the position error instead of reducing it —potentially making the system unstable. To become unstable, the feedback of actual position X needs to be positive, but it also must be equal or greater than the reference signal Xr with a gain equal or greater than 1.
In this unstable condition, the servo controller pumps in external energy to the system that continuously increases the oscillation amplitude of the stage.
If we look at the response to the step input in time domain as shown in Figure six: System response to a step input in time. Centralia St. Elkhorn, WI Phone: This is a safety margin to stability, which is called phase margin.
Bandwidth considerations for design work Another aspect of the closed-loop transfer function H s is that when the open-loop gain K s G s is very high, the closed-loop system gain is about 1. When the open-loop gain is very low, the closed-loop transfer function resembles the open-loop transfer function.
The frequency at that point is called the position bandwidth. Consider one example. So we expect the servo system to drive the stage with a very small position error in all frequencies lower than the bandwidth.
Above the bandwidth frequency, the servo system may be incapable of following the input position without error. Similarly, if disturbing forces act on the stage at higher frequencies than the bandwidth, the servo may be incapable of rejecting them, and other means such as feedforward loops — beyond the scope of this article may be required. A fourth is mounted to a table and wheeled between tasks.
The application required no scripting and was created by a journeyman machinist with minimal training. Scan code to read case study and watch the video: www. Here, we simply add a zero to the stiffness value and then click RUN. We see that natural frequency increased as expected by a factor of sqrt 10 to Also notice that the bandwidth dropped from its original value of 10 to about 1 Hz and the settling-time response became sluggish.
This shift decreased the position bandwidth and slowed down the stage. To increase the low-frequency gain which was lost in the previous iteration we may try to increase the integral gain Ki by a factor of 10 by adding a 0 to the integral gain value Ki and clicking RUN. Results in Figure seven: Servo tuning process with PI gain changes show the left side of the trough increased, bandwidth went back to about 10 Hz, and the resulting response became faster yet oscillatory.
As mentioned, this is one condition to ensure system stability. Another condition for stability is gain margin — the distance in dB between the zero-dB line and the open-. Figure eight shows it to be about 15 dB, which occurs at about 80 Hz. The chart in figure eight also shows the phase margin and the bandwidth as discussed earlier. The rationale of the gain-margin requirement for stability is like that of the phase margin.
When the phase is , we need to ensure that output is lower than the input with a gain magnitude of less than 1. Otherwise, the servo will command the motor to add increasing energy to the system, which increases output indefinitely — and makes the system unstable. Results may be noticeable as loud audible noise, high vibration, and at high enough gain and low enough damping a possible catastrophic failure. Servo systems are typically tuned to gain margins greater than 15 dB.
Mechanical improvements for better design performance To attenuate the ringing effect as shown in figure seven and shorten the settling time response, we can try to increase the mechanical damping. As shown in figure nine, increasing the mechanical damping B by a factor of 10 gives a smoother motion profile and reduced settling time — from longer than msec in the previous iteration to msec in this one.
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System optimization with multiple iterations We may continue the iterative process of tuning system parameters for optimal performance by trial and error or by recommended tuning processes. Several widely used tuning techniques involve a PID parameter that is changed until the stage starts ringing.
Then, the parameter value is reduced and the next parameter is increased until it resonates the system again. This process continues until the designer gets a good settling profile and the settling time is minimized to an acceptable value. An example of what a good tuning profile may look like in time domain is shown in Figure ten: Optimal system performance.
Settling time in this iteration is reduced to Note that the webtool presented in this article is provided as a courtesy of Optinet Inc. The webtool is primarily intended as a self-study tutorial of simultaneous effects that PID and mechanical parameters have on the performance and stability of automated mechanical systems.
Innovative design enhancements make flat cables strong candidates for applications where round cable was once the natural choice.
Edited by: Mary C. Flat cable has been around for about 60 years, since Cicoil invented the ribbon cable for IBM computers in Over the decades it has been a favorite in high end computing, military and aerospace, robotics and motion control devices. Its advantages include superior flexibility, electronic noise abatement, and packaging efficiency. Its limiting factor over this time has been the need for unique termination techniques—prepping for connectors has largely required hand work.
A new type of flat cable has been developed by Cicoil Corporation that promises to put this last hurdle into the past, opening the potential for engineers to take advantage of flat cable advantages while using the common cable prep tools and automated processes currently in use with round cables.
Reliability — The simplicity of flat cable with its parallel conductor geometry eliminates many of the common sources of wiring errors and malfunctions. Conductors are registered one-toone with the terminating connector or board so proper contact assignment is almost automatic.
Weight reduction — The use of flat cable often eliminates much of the conventional wire weight. Such things as redundant insulating materials, fillers and tapes are unnecessary. In addition, the composite flat cable construction is mechanically strong enough to eliminate the need to include large conductors for strength.
The copper cross-section can thus be reduced to only that necessary to carry current loads or to satisfy voltage drop requirements. Space efficiency — Elimination of unnecessary insulation,.
Additionally, their low profile enables flat cables to hug surfaces and take advantage of tight or normally unused space. A rectangular cross-section lets flat cables stack or layer with almost no wasted space between cables, providing maximum conductor density for a given volume. Flexibility — Flat cable is extremely flexible when bent in the plane of its thin cross-section. This flexibility has been used in applications where continuous or high flexing is necessary, as in drawers, doors, rotating arms, and so forth.
Greater strength — Flat cables have high strength because all conductors and insulators equally share tensile loads. Consistent electrical qualities — The conductor spacing is fixed and the geometry of the cable is constant. This geometry brings consistent electrical qualities that include impedance, capacitance, inductance, time, delay, crosstalk and attenuation.
Greater current-carrying capacity — Flat cables. Consequently, flat cables dissipate heat more efficiently. This thermal efficiency lets them handle a higher current level for a given temperature rise and conductor cross-section. This minimizes time delays between signals within a given flat cable. High-density interconnections — Flat cable has a high wire-to-cable cross-sectional density. So layers of flat cable pack more efficiently and provide a higher conductor density than in round cables.
Ease of handling — Flat cable folds and bends readily, conforms to the mounting area, fastens easily with clamps, adhesive, or double-faced tape, eliminating the installation and lacing difficulties associated with round wire cabling. Conductors are visible and in a fixed position within the dielectric, a factor that simplifies coding, inspection, and circuit tracing. Most cable is round, which is a generally useful geometry. These layers are there to retain a round profile and to minimize frictional heating as the cable moves.
Surrounding the wires and fillers is an outer jacket that holds it all together and. But, while round cable is normally fine for general use, there are drawbacks with this construction.
Because it incorporates these multiple layers of wires, insulation, and fillers, heat dissipation from the wires can be problematic in round cable. Despite measures to reduce it there is still frictional heat produced inside the cable during repetitive motion cycles. Add to this the issue of electrical impedance alteration as conductors inside the cable move relative to one another. With flat cable each conductor is kept parallel with neighboring conductors to form the flat profile.
Similarly, the conductors in the cable all have the same physical and electrical length. Thus signal skewing and differential time delays between signals in the cable stay at a minimum. Flat cable, as produced by Cicoil, isolates each conductor within the cable, keeping them stable and stationary. The result is that they need no low-friction tapes or fillers. This has the added advantage of reducing both weight and volume, which provides maximum packaging efficiency.
And the greater surface to volume ratio of the flat form factor also dissipates heat far better. The larger surface area and heat dissipating capability enables. Whether your application is for precise motion control or for general power transmission, there are several gear technologies that can do the job.
But which one does it best? Only DieQua offers the widest range of gearmotors, speed reducers and servo gearheads along with the experience and expertise to help you select the optimal solution to satisfy your needs. C a b l e s flat cables to carry a higher current for a given temperature rise, and for conductors of a given cross section. Furthermore, the flat form factor means that within the plane of its thin cross section, flat cables exhibit far more inherent flexibility than equivalent round cables.
Ultimately, where signal-to-noise purity, flexibility, heat, weight and volume efficiencies are paramount, flat cables have better inherent performance values than found in round cable. Until now round cable deficiencies have been tolerated, and engineered around, because it is very common and tooling exists for efficient terminating and assembly.
Our gearmotors, motors and controls are engineered to give you flawless performance year after year. From design to delivery, you can count on Bodine for the best gearmotor solution. A new generation of flat cable combines ease of use with inherent advantages. Called EZ-Flexx, it is constructed to be as easy to work with as common round cables, while also providing a long flex life and all the other features and benefits of traditional, highperformance flat cable.
Ordinary manual or automated wire stripping tools can handle the stripping process. Conductors comprising an EZ-Flexx flat cable are easily split from the cable body revealing a traditional round.
The process is straightforward: Split out the individual conductors in the cable, strip the outer jacket from the end of the conductors, strip the inner conductor insulation, and apply the connector in the usual way. It is useful to understand the capabilities of modern EZ-Flexx flat cable by examining some older flat cabling technologies. As noted earlier, the flat ribbon cable was introduced by Cicoil in for early mainframe computers.
Ribbon cable allowed companies like IBM to replace bulky, stiff round cables with a low-profile alternative that could be terminated easily through use of insulation displacement connectors IDCs. Ribbon cable is inexpensive and has a standard geometry.
A point to note is that ribbon cable is not really comparable to modern flat cable such as EZ-Flexx. Plus, ribbon cables use just a single. And finally, ribbon cable can emit electromagnetic interference in the absence of extra shielding. Another type of flat cable uses a simple external sheath, often of PTFE branded by Dupont as Teflon , to enclose bundles of conductors.
Unlike ribbon cable or extruded flat cable like EZ-Flexx, wires in the PTFE jacket are not held in place within the jacketing material. They can creep from their initial position, or be pulled out of place, by forces from the terminating connections. To head off such difficulties, PTFE flat cable may employ clamps at regular intervals along the. PTFE jackets are also relatively brittle, and can crack with repetitive flexing, exposing the internal wires.
Another type of flat conductor technology is that of flex circuits. These are basically flexible versions of printed circuit boards. They are usually comprised of conductive traces either screen printed or plated onto, or sandwiched between, flexible plastic substrates. The usual application for flex circuits is in forming a connection between circuit boards where space is at a premium and the geometries involved are difficult for ordinary connectors to handle.
Flex circuits. Get inspired with his keynote, then discover a full spectrum of industry solutions ushering in a new era of manufacturing — all on one show floor. Six leading shows. One powerful event. June 13 – 15, Jacob K. Make the Connections. Gain the Insights. Moreover, because their conductors have dimensions that are on the order of circuit board traces, flex circuits have a limited ability to handle high power levels or lengthy trace runs.
Flat versus contoured cable. Cicoil extruded flat cables are defined as a group of conductors electrical, liquid or gas tubing, fiber-optics aligned in parallel, and completely, seamlessly encapsulated in an insulating, protective jacket.
Cicoil invented the patented extrusion process employed to manufacture this type of flat cable. EZ-Flexx flat cables consist of a variety of color-coded PFA-insulated electrical conductors, and Teflon or polyurethane tubing elements, which are encapsulated overall within an ultra-pure, engineered rubber jacket. This proprietary engineered rubber is called Flexx-Sil, and delivers a number of useful properties.
The distinguishing feature of EZFlexx flat cable is the combination of roundprofile conductors extruded with a Flexx-Sil encapsulation that maintains the individual round wire form factor needed for common hand and automated stripping equipment. A thin Flexx-Sil rubber strip — part of the overall extrusion — connects each of the individual elements to form the flat cable.
Multiple conductor bundles can be separated out from a single cable, each terminated with their own connector. Each conductor is kept parallel with neighboring conductors. Virtually any type of electrical conductors required for power, signal, video and data may incorporated into EZ-Flexx cable. This includes bare wire, insulated and shielded conductors, twisted pair, tri-axial, and coax, etc. EZ-Flexx flat cables work well in applications characterized by extreme environments, motion, and challenging space constraints.
They are particularly durable, and advantageous where other kinds of cable fall short. EZ-Flexx cable excels at motion applications because the wire is extremely supple, as it is made from multiple bundles of fine AWG base strands. This contrasts. Because a flat profile takes up less volume than comparative round wire when stacked or bundled, EZ-Flexx saves valuable space.
These cables are encapsulated with jackets made of Flexx-Sil. From inspiration and advice to referrals and job opportunities, your contacts can help you tackle tough challenges. C a b l e s Flat cable, like this one pictured in black and white, was first used on mainframe computers. Flexx-Sil rubber is extruded seamlessly around each cable element to form a single flat cable, and it is crystal clear so the individual conductors are visible.
And the PFA jacket insulating each of the conductors is color coded for easy gauge size identification anywhere along the cable length. Flexx-Sil provides flexibility while protecting conductors against sudden impact, severe vibration, and extreme G forces. Flexx-Sil requires no conduit for protection.
It is tear resistant, and is self-healing from small punctures. And it maintains flexibility and operation integrity in extreme temperatures, as already noted.
Flexx-Sil has passed UL 94V0 flammability testing. It is also waterproof including immersion , resists most chemicals, and operates for years in intense UV and sunlight conditions. EZ-Flexx flat cable has introduced a new paradigm in flat cable design — one that reduces the need to engineer around the performance limitations of round cable. The innovative cable marries flat cable performance-enhancing attributes such as Flexx-Sil jacketing and ultra-flex, fine-stranded wire conductors, with a physical profile matching that of standard wires found in common round cable.
EZ-Flexx introduces the first flat cable ready for use with industrystandard assembly tooling and presents a costeffective solution. When progress comes at you fast, learning keeps you competitive. The material construction of the pumps and actuators has been important, of course, but even a hundred years ago the technology existed to build steel components capable of thousands of pounds influential contributor to high power of fluid power systems realized today.
A seal has one job; separate two spaces from each other to prevent fluid air or liquid from reaching the other side. The seal can get more advanced, such as with a dynamic seal designed to separate high pressure fluid while allowing movement between two sliding or rotating surfaces. The O-ring is literally as elementary as a seal can be; simply a round cord of rubber shaped in a circle. It is typically a static seal, meaning it remains stationary to prevent pressurized fluid from escaping a pump case, cylinder cap or cartridge valve et al.
However, they can be used in economical dynamic applications, courtesy of Freudenberg-NOK such as a rod or piston seal in an air cylinder, or the spool seal in a directional valve. When used as a static seal, there are only considerations for pressure capacity and fluid compatibility. Higher pressure O-rings are made from a harder synthetic rubber to prevent extrusion out of gaps in the components.
Also, should exotic fluids be used in a hydraulic system, synthetic polymers resistant to these fluids can be used to improve longevity. Sealing between two moving components is critical to any fluid power system, because without that movement, a cylinder is just a steel rod and a motor is just a shaft. The challenge in sealing two There is a balance between these two extremes, and often the individual application dictates what type of seal is used.
The lip seal is the most common seal used in dynamic applications, because it exerts little friction—especially at low pressure—but its inherent nature ensures excellent sealing at high pressure.
The lip seal cross section often looks like a U, so it is often referred to as a U-Cup. The shape. You can also see by the shape of the U-Cup that pressure exerted upon the seal forces the lips apart, increasing sealing as pressure rises.
Lips seals tend to have less static friction than other types of seals, such as an O-ring combined with backup rings. Unfortunately, the U-Cup has poor sealing at low pressure, especially in static applications where the cylinder is meant to hold a load. More advanced seals have been developed, which marry various technologies resulting in a more superior all-around seal. The loaded U-Cup is still a U-Cup, so it has the effect of increasing sealing as pressure rises. Although the level of pressureinduced sealing is less than a full U-Cup, it provides an excellent compromise between two mechanisms.
A further evolution of the loaded U-Cup is the crown seal, which looks liked an inverted loaded U-cup with the O-Ring on the bottom side. The crown seal, which can be molded or machined from one pieced of polymer or made from two to four components, is excellent for very high pressure applications.
How a seal is installed is just as important as it shape or composition. With half the bend radius of most R13 and R15 hoses, the Eaton EC X-FLEX spiral hydraulic hose is significantly easier to route in tight spaces, helping installers use less force and less hose per job. Whether an O-Ring, piston seal, shaft seal or mechanical seal, the cavity dimensions must be accurate as to prevent damage, leakage, friction, increased wear or fitment issues. All seal manufacturers list the seal installation requirements in their catalogues, so be sure to heed them.
After the seal type and installation is carefully considered, the specifics of the application must be considered. Early dynamic hydraulic seals were made from leather, which would be pressed or molded into usable U-cup or V-packing shapes capable of holding over 1, psi or more.
Dynamic seals could also have been made from impregnated fiber materials, which can also be moulded. Static seals could have been made from cork or even natural rubber. Most naturally sourced materials are perfectly suited to handle a fair magnitude of pressure, but were poor for longevity. As synthetic rubber technology improved, they antiquated the use of natural materials in fluid power applications.
Buna Nitrile synthetic rubber is now the most common material used for hydraulic component sealing, as it has good general fluid compatibility, is easy to manufacture, and when properly applied, is capable of high pressure applications. Exotic fluids, such as high-water based fluids used in fire resistant hydraulic applications, are not compatible with nitrile.
In these cases, polyurethane is used, which is suitable for use with additives such as glycol. Polyurethane is also excellent for high pressure and high temperature applications, although if extreme heat is seen, there are other options. For high temperature applications, fluorocarbon aka Viton seals are often used. The downside to fluorocarbon is that it is softer than what can be had in nitrile.
Because of its softness, Viton is often de-rated for pressure—such as a piston lip seal, for example. The softness of rubber is rated using shore hardness or durometer. A higher durometer rubber is more rigid and resistant to forming than the jelly I described earlier. Standard 70 durometer nitrile rubber is good for general applications where pressure is moderate. As pressure increases, seals can be damaged or extruded, so 80 or 90 durometer polymers can be applied, which resist deformation better.
Seals are indeed the unsung heroes of fluid power. They are necessary for hydraulic to achieve its legendary might, but are often overlooked for their importance. A little thought put into seals will ensure your fluid power application is efficient, reliable and performs optimally. Highly remote locations call for Tadiran batteries.
Battery replacement is costly and often dangerous work. With an annual self-discharge rate of just 0. Our batteries also feature the highest capacity, highest energy density, and widest temperature range of any lithium cell, plus a glass-tometal hermetic seal for added ruggedness and reliability in extreme environments. Tadiran Batteries Marcus Ave. Advanced lithium batteries extend the reach of WirelessHART and other communications protocols to help the IoT expand into extreme environments.
Nearly 30 million HART-enabled devices are currently in use worldwide, supporting a wide range of applications, including process control and asset management, safety systems, machine-tomachine M2M , and system control and data automation SCADA. The HART protocol employs Bell Frequency Shift Keying analog phone caller ID technology to superimpose digital signals on top of analog signals, providing an easily configurable low-cost field communications solution.
This cost constraint is even more problematic in remote, environmentally sensitive locations, where logistical, regulatory, and permitting requirements can delay projects and cause expenses to skyrocket. Fortunately, for many remote applications the need for hard-wiring has been largely eliminated by the. As part of this technology shift, wireless mesh networks will be used to form redundant, self-healing networks.
Choosing between consumer and industrial grade batteries Remote wireless devices that require long-life power predominantly rely upon primary non-rechargeable lithium batteries. However, a small percentage of applications will be well suited for some form of energy harvesting device in combination with a rechargeable Lithium-Ion Li-Ion battery to store the harvested energy.
Since a remote wireless device is only as reliable as its power supply, each device must be optimized based on application-specific requirements. Generally, the more remote the application, the more likely the need for an industrialgrade lithium battery. Inexpensive consumer-grade alkaline batteries can be considered for certain applications that are easily accessible and which operate within a moderate temperature range. However, alkaline batteries are not well suited to long-term industrial applications due to inherent limitations, including low voltage 1.
The low initial cost of a consumer-grade battery is often highly misleading, as the typical cost to replace a battery far exceeds that of the battery itself. For instance, consider all the labor costs involved to replace batteries in a remote fluid flow monitoring system or in a structural stress sensor attached to a bridge abutment.
To accurately judge whether a short-lived consumer-grade alkaline battery is a worthy investment, you must calculate the lifetime cost of the power supply, factoring in all the labor and material costs associated with future battery replacements. Industrial grade lithium batteries are commonly specified when the following performance features are required:.
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Built for long-term reliability. Performance data presented in this manual are not fully optimized as they do not take into account the specificity of the Customer\’s mission. Price fixing is not just unethical but also illegal. It is assessed that the sound field under the fairing is diffuse. For each mission, Arianespace will verify that the distances between orbiting bodies are. Better informed decision-making leads to better product development outcomes. For more accurate data, users should contact Arianespace for a performance estimate. Guiana Space Centre 6. The paragraphs that follow present the vehicle reference. Shop dust, sand, fine metal particles from nearby machining, water and dirt can all interfere with the lubricant that keeps a bearing operating, and can damage the bearing itself.❿
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The Customer will provide the harness for this segment. Spacecraft to EGSE umbilical lines 5. Likewise, lower ambient temperatures can have a negative effect—lubricant viscosity increases at lower temperatures and can cause improper flow and therefore compromise protective benefits. All communications on this network are recorded during countdown. The facilities are capable to process several satellites of different customers in the same time, thanks to large cleanrooms and supporting infrastructures. Bandwidth considerations for design work Another aspect of the closed-loop transfer function H s is that when the open-loop gain K s G s is very high, the closed-loop system gain is about 1. Arianespace combines low risk and flight proven launch systems with financing,.